2001 Progress Report: ECOHAB:Florida – An In-depth Study of Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve)

EPA Grant Number: R827085
Title: ECOHAB:Florida – An In-depth Study of Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve)
Investigators: Steidinger, Karen A. , Fahnenstiel, Gary , Fournie, Jack , Janowitz, Gerald S. , Kamykowski, Daniel , Kirkpatrick, Gary J. , Landsberg, Jan H. , Lohenz, Steven , McGuire, Peter , Millie, David F. , Pierce, Richard , Redalje, Donald , Schofield, Oscar M.E. , Tester, Patricia A. , Tomas, Carmelo R. , VanDolah, Francis
Current Investigators: Steidinger, Karen A. , Dolah, Francis Van , Fahnenstiel, Gary , Fournie, Jack , Janowitz, Jerald , Kamykowski, Daniel , Kirkpatrick, Gary J. , Landsberg, Jan H. , Lohrenz, Steven , Millie, David F. , Neely, Merrie Beth , Pierce, Richard , Redalje, Donald , Schofield, Oscar M.E. , Tester, Patricia A. , Tomas, Carmelo R. , Vargo, Gabriel A.
Institution: Florida Marine Research Institute , Mote Marine Laboratory , North Carolina State University , Oregon State University , Rutgers University - New Brunswick , U. S. Environmental Protection Agency , U.S. Department of Agriculture - New Orleans Laboratory , University of Florida , University of Southern Mississippi
Current Institution: Florida Marine Research Institute , Mote Marine Laboratory , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , North Carolina State University , Oregon State University , Rutgers University - New Brunswick , U. S. Environmental Protection Agency , University of South Florida , University of Southern Mississippi
EPA Project Officer: Hiscock, Michael
Project Period: October 15, 1998 through September 30, 2002 (Extended to September 30, 2003)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 15, 2000 through September 30, 2001
Project Amount: $975,000
RFA: Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (1998) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Water Quality , Harmful Algal Blooms , Water , Ecosystems

Objective:

This research project is part of a larger program entitled, ECOHAB:Florida (the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms), a collaboration of studies relating to physical oceanography, circulation patterns, and shelf-scale modeling for predicting the occurrence and transport of Karenia brevis (formerly called Gymnodinium breve) red tides. The physical part of this program is funded by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is operated by the University of South Florida, College of Marine Science. The coordinated program provides data to conduct large- and small-scale modeling of blooms. The objectives of this research project are to: (1) determine the interaction of cellular, behavioral, life cycle, and community regulation processes with environmental forcing factors during stage development; (2) model the biophysical interactions of K. brevis red tides on the west Florida shelf at small scales of less than 1 km at the physiological level of K. brevis' interaction with its chemical and physical habitat; (3) determine the sources of inorganic and organic nutrients that allow growth and persistence of large K. brevis population in coastal waters; and (4) determine the production, occurrence, fate, and effects of brevetoxins in the environment during and after K. brevis blooms.

Progress Summary:

2001 Process Cruise. The ECOHAB:Florida Process Cruise was undertaken September 20-26. Three pre-cruise surveys were conducted in response to a harmful algal bloom event first identified in August 2001. These surveys not only helped to direct our initial search, but also assisted in tracking the bloom over the course of time. High abundances of K. brevis were identified on the west Florida continental shelf between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor before the September cruise. Cell distributions were primarily restricted to nearshore waters, although a patch was identified greater than 50 nautical miles offshore of Charlotte Harbor. Data are being processed.

Monthly Offshore Small Boat Transects. One ECOHAB:Florida transect, monitoring seven stations between 1 and 50 km offshore, was conducted each month in conjunction with three additional Mote transects each month supported by state funding to supplement ECOHAB. These transects included profiling casts of a SeaBird SBE-19 CTD that included sensors for determination of dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and nutrients. Cell counts from these transects were uploaded to the Florida Marine Research Institute Web Site (www.floridamarine.org) as they became available. Other data were provided for the ECOHAB:Florida FTP Web Site. The last 2 months of data are being reformatted and verified before being uploaded to the FTP Web Site.

Nutrient analyses were performed on near-surface and near-bottom water samples from some of the transects. Analytical parameters included dissolved ammonium-nitrogen, dissolved nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, dissolved ortho-phosphorus, dissolved silicates, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a (corrected for pheophytin); pheophytin; chlorophylls a, b, and c; iron; and manganese.

Hydrographic Cruises (Separate EPA Award R826792, but Part of ECOHAB:Florida, G. Vargo, PI, University of South Florida). This component of ECOHAB:Florida collected water column samples from greater than 70 locations during monthly quasi-synoptic cruises for hydrographic information. Data include phytoplankton biomass (as chlorophyll a), particulate carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, live K. brevis counts from surface samples and near bottom samples from selected locations, preserved samples for total phytoplankton abundance and species composition (analyzed by others), total dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus, inorganic nutrient samples (analyzed by others), and water column samples for the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. (a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium). The overall objective of this phase is to provide monthly hydrographic information for the ECOHAB:Florida investigators and for the development, initiation, and validation of a coupled physical-biological model that is being developed with funds from our NOAA partner in the ECOHAB:Florida program.

Currently, monthly synoptic cruises consist of 14 nearshore stations sampled concurrently with the R/V Bellows and 58 stations sampled with the R/V Suncoaster in the ECOHAB:Florida control volume. Significant K. brevis blooms were observed in west Florida shelf waters during the fall-winter of 2001. In addition to continuous underway measurements, CTD profiles which include in vivo fluorescence are conducted at each of the 72 total locations. At every other location, water bottle samples are taken at selected depths throughout the water column for a variety of parameters including live counts for K. brevis abundance. Table 1 provides an example of the parameters sampled and the status of sample processing. Analyses of each parameter are ongoing, and completed monthly datasets are available for all ECOHAB:Florida investigators. As of the June 2001 cruise, we will have completed 3 years of monthly synoptic assessments. Funds are available from our NOAA partners and the state of Florida for additional cruises.

Our monthly cruises also are used as a platform for other ECOHAB:Florida related studies being conducted for viruses associated with phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), bio-optics for satellite algorithm development, K. brevis life cycle studies, zooplankton in relation to K. brevis blooms, and other investigations that contribute to the understanding of red tide blooms on the shelf. The following table summarizes the status of ECOHAB chemical and biological measurements from the hydrographic cruises for this past year:

Table 1. Summary of ECOHAB Measurement Status
Measurement Status*
Inorganic Nutrients (NO3, NO2, SiO4, PO4, NH3) Completed through November 2001 cruise
Organic Nutrients TDP: complete through November 2001
Organic Nutrients DON: analyzed through March, 2000
Particulate Nutrients CHN: completed through June, 2000
Particulate Nutrients Particulate P: complete through August 2001
Chlorophyll a Completed through November 2001
K. brevis Cell Concentration Completed through November 2001
Phytoplankton Community Composition Archived for future; analysis underway
Underway Data (Fluorescence, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity)** Processed through November 2001

*Status indicated as completed includes chemical analysis, data entry, and calculation.
**Processing of underway data consists of manual inspection of data for recording errors prior to bin averaging (30 seconds) and combining approximately 35 files to facilitate data analysis and graphing.

Life Cycle, Cell Cycle, and Growth Regulatory Mechanisms in K. brevis. During the 2001 cruise, cell cycle phasing and stress proteins were assessed. Sediment samples collected to test for the presence of K. brevis cysts are being processed by a new technique using differential separation of dinocysts by centrifugation in a density gradient. The method has been tested and is effective in obtaining viable dinocysts. Clonal cultures from blooms in 1996 through this year's ECOHAB cruises were established and maintained for crosses of heterothallic strains. Crosses of certain clones are being conducted in the laboratory to produce planozygotes to use for induction experiments.

Fate and Effects of Toxins. Samples were collected off the Florida West Coast during a bloom period in 2001. Water and phytoplankton were collected at surface, mid-and bottom depths for toxin analyses by ELISA, Receptor Binding Assay, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Various marine tissues, both exposed and unexposed K. brevis were collected for processing by ELISA and Receptor Binding Assay. Samples are specifically being collected to compare cell biomass and cell count data to brevetoxin data during different phases of blooms to determine what the relationship is and how it can be used. The ability to discern between Intra- and Extra-cell brevetoxins was verified using the stirred ultrafiltration extraction cell method by processing laboratory cultures with varying amounts of live and lysed K. brevis cells. Application of the filtration method to field samples collected during ECOHAB:Florida cruises off of two different areas of the Florida Gulf coast showed that in the early portions of each cruise, when K. brevis cell counts were low, the majority of toxins were Intra-cell. As the sampling progressed to higher K. brevis cell counts, the amount of Extra-cell toxins increased, which supports the concept of cell lysis and release of toxins into the water as the bloom progresses.

Data Management and Products. Much of these data are available at www.mote.org, www.floridamarine.org, and the ECOHAB:Florida FTP Web Site. Metadata from all Principal Investigators and associates have been collected and are available on the FTP Web Site. PIs have access to the Site via a password. A Web page for the general program is maintained with reports, references, PIs, and other information relating to ECOHAB:Florida.

Future Activities:

In 2000 and 2001, four non-K. brevis bloom species that possibly represent new species or species similar to those being newly described from New Zealand were found in some ECOHAB:Florida samples. One species morphologically resembles K. mikimotoi and was isolated and cultured in 2001. It will be tested with a K. mikimotoi probe developed by Allison Haywood and Chris Scholin, along with other probes developed by that team. As other Karenia are isolated and cultured, their nucleic acids will be sequenced for identification or determination of relatedness. The reason that it is important to differentiate between the Karenia species is that they appear to have different toxins or different ratios of toxins or different amounts of toxins per cell. For example, K. brevis and K. mikimotoi both produce brevetoxins but in different amounts, and a new species produces both brevetoxins and gymnodiamine (another toxin).

Data from all hydrographic cruises, transect, and process cruises will be available on an updated CD of historical and current red tide data from 1954 to 2001. It is being produced for a Principal Investigators meeting in late May/early June 2002. The sponsors of this data CD are the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FMRI), University of South Florida (College of Marine Science), Mote Marine Laboratory, NOAA, and the EPA. A CD of abbreviated data for 1954-1998 is already available, but does not include ECOHAB:Florida data. The updated, expanded CD will include this program's hydrographic data including chlorophyll a, nutrients, and other variables. Eventually, ECOHAB:Florida data will be on the World Wide Web. The FTP Site is being reformatted, and data and metadata are being verified for consistency.


Journal Articles on this Report : 24 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 80 publications 27 publications in selected types All 25 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Walsh JJ, Bissett WP, Dieterle DA, Fanning KA. A numerical analysis of the phytoplankton composition and optical properties of the water column during 1998 off the west coast of Florida. Journal of Marine Research. R827085 (2000)
R827085 (2001)
R827085 (2002)
not available
Journal Article Doucette GJ, McGovern ER, Babinchak JA. Algicidal bacteria active against Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae). I. Bacterial isolation and characterization of killing activity 1,3. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1447-1454. R827085 (2000)
R827085 (2001)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Evens TJ, Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Chapman DJ, Schofield OME. Photophysiological responses of the toxic red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) under natural sunlight. Journal of Plankton Research 2001;23(11):1177-1194. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford Journals-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford Journals-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Heil CA, Vargo GA, Patch J, Lester K, Merkt R, Neely MB, Spence DN, Kirkpatrick G, Pederson B, Walsh JJ. A Comparison of the Holm-Hansen and Welshmeyer chlorophyll a methods in west Florida shelf waters. Limnology and Oceanography. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Moline MA, Schofield O. Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations. Limnology and Oceanography 2000;45(2):467-471. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R825243 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASLO-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lenes JM, Darrow BP, Cattrall C, Heil CA, Callahan M, Vargo GA, Byrne RH, Prospero JM, Bates DE, Fanning KA, Walsh JJ. Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Limnology and Oceanography 2001;46(6):1261-1277. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R826792 (2000)
  • Full-text: ASLO-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO
    Exit
  • Journal Article Liu G, Janowitz GS, Kamykowski D. A biophysical model of population dynamics of the autotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2001;210:101-124. R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: Marine Ecology Progress Series - PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Marine Ecology Progress Series - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Liu G, Janowitz GS, Kamykowski D. Influence of current shear on Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) population dynamics: a numerical study. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2002;231:47-66. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R829370 (2002)
    R829370 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lohrenz SE, Fahnenstiel GL, Kirkpatrick GJ, Carroll CL, Kelly KA. Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1438-1446. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Dionigi CP, Tester PA. What is the importance for understanding the molecular, cellular, and ecophysiological bases of harmful algal blooms? Journal of Phycology 1999;35:1353-1355. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Pederson BL, Millie DF, Kirkpatrick GJ. Accumulation of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve Davis, along coastal density fronts. Journal of Marine Systems. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    not available
    Journal Article Penta B, Walsh JJ, Tomas C, Vargo GA. Phytoplankton competition on the west Florida shelf: a simulation analysis with "red tide" implications. Limnology and Oceanography. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Pierce RH, Kirkpatrick GJ. Innovative techniques for harmful algal toxin analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2001;20(1):107-114. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Schofield O, Gryzmski J, Bissett WP, Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Moline M, Roesler CS. Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream? Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1477-1496. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R825243 (1999)
    R825243 (Final)
  • Full-text: Cal Poly - PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Dionigi CP, Schofield O, Kirkpatrick GJ, Tester PA. The importance of understanding the molecular, cellular, and ecophysiological bases of harmful algal blooms. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6S):1353-1355. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Other: Wiley Online-Citation
    Exit
  • Journal Article Tester PA, Turner JT, Shea D. Vectorial transport of toxins from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve through copepods to fish. Journal of Plankton Research 2000;22(1):47-62. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford Journals
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford Journals-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Van Dolah FM, Leighfield TA. Diel phasing of the cell-cycle in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1404-1411. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Steidinger KA. Saharan dust and Florida red tides: the cyanophyte connection. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 2001;106(C6):11597-11612. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: AGU
    Exit
  • Other: USF-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Penta B, Dieterle DA, Bissett WP. Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 2001;7(5):1369-1383. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Haddad KD, Dieterle DA, Weisberg RH, Li ZJ, Yang HJ, Muller-Karger FE, Heil CA, Bissett WP. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida. Continental Shelf Research 2002;22(1):15-38. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDIrect - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Vargo GA, Weisberg RH, Kirkpatrick GJ, Fanning KA, Sutton T, Bissett WP. Isotope delineation of the phytoplankton response to a Loop Current intrusion on the west Florida shelf. Continental Shelf Research. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    not available
    Journal Article Weisberg RH, Black BD, Li L. An upwelling case study on Florida's west coast. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 2000;105(C5):11459-11469. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: USF-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Weisberg RH, Li Z, Muller-Karger F. West Florida shelf response to local wind forcing: April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 2001;106(C12):31239-31262. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: USF - Full Text - HTML
    Exit
  • Journal Article Yang H, Weisberg RH. Response of the West Florida shelf circulation to climatological wind stress forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 1999;104(C3):5301-5320. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    harmful algal blooms, red tide, Karenia brevis, modeling, Gulf of Mexico, life cycle, blooms, biophysical interactions, nutrients, brevetoxin, Florida, FL, monitoring, data management, phytoplankton, hydrography, cell cycle., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Geographic Area, Waste, Water, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Bioavailability, Ecology, Contaminated Sediments, Ecosystem/Assessment/Indicators, Ecosystem Protection, Health Risk Assessment, Oceanography, Ecological Effects - Environmental Exposure & Risk, algal blooms, Southeast, Ecology and Ecosystems, Biology, Ecological Indicators, ecological effects, ecological exposure, red tides, harmful algal blooms, ecological modeling, contaminated sediment, brevetoxins, dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, West Coast of Florida, Gymnodinium breve toxins, ECOHAB, dinoflagellate, ecological models, Florida

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.floridamarine.org Exit
    http://www.mote.org/~pederson/ecotrans.phtml Exit
    http://www.mote.org/~pederson/ecohab.phtml Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • Final Report