2000 Progress Report: ECOHAB:Florida – An In-depth Study of Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve)

EPA Grant Number: R827085
Title: ECOHAB:Florida – An In-depth Study of Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve)
Investigators: Steidinger, Karen A. , Dolah, Francis Van , Fahnenstiel, Gary , Fournie, Jack , Janowitz, Jerald , Kamykowski, Daniel , Kirkpatrick, Gary J. , Landsberg, Jan H. , Lohrenz, Steven , McGuire, Peter , Millie, David F. , Pierce, Richard , Redalje, Donald , Schofield, Oscar M.E. , Tester, Patricia A. , Tomas, Carmelo R.
Current Investigators: Steidinger, Karen A. , Dolah, Francis Van , Fahnenstiel, Gary , Fournie, Jack , Janowitz, Jerald , Kamykowski, Daniel , Kirkpatrick, Gary J. , Landsberg, Jan H. , Lohrenz, Steven , Millie, David F. , Neely, Merrie Beth , Pierce, Richard , Redalje, Donald , Schofield, Oscar M.E. , Tester, Patricia A. , Tomas, Carmelo R. , Vargo, Gabriel A.
Institution: Florida Marine Research Institute , Mote Marine Laboratory , North Carolina State University , Oregon State University , Rutgers University - New Brunswick , University of Florida , University of Southern Mississippi
Current Institution: Florida Marine Research Institute , Mote Marine Laboratory , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , North Carolina State University , Oregon State University , Rutgers University - New Brunswick , U. S. Environmental Protection Agency , University of South Florida , University of Southern Mississippi
EPA Project Officer: Hiscock, Michael
Project Period: October 15, 1998 through September 30, 2002 (Extended to September 30, 2003)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 15, 1999 through September 30, 2000
Project Amount: $975,000
RFA: Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (1998) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Water Quality , Harmful Algal Blooms , Water , Ecosystems

Objective:

This program is part of a larger program called ECOHAB: Florida that includes this study as well as physical oceanography, circulation patterns, and shelf-scale modeling for predicting the occurrence and transport of Gymnodinium breve* red tides. The physical part of the program is funded by NOAA and EPA and is operated by the University of South Florida, College of Marine Science. The coordinated program provides data to do large- and small-scale modeling of blooms. The program objectives are to: (1) determine the interactions of cellular, behavioral, life cycle, and community regulation processes with environmental forcing factors during stages of bloom development; (2) model the biophysical interactions of G. breve red tides on the west Florida shelf at small scales of < 1 km at the physiological level of G. breve's interaction with its chemical and physical habitat; (3) determine the sources of inorganic and organic nutrients that allow growth and persistence of large G. breve populations in coastal waters; and (4) determine the production, occurrence, fate, and effects of brevetoxins in the environment during and after G. breve blooms. [*Note: Gymnodinium breve Davis has been transferred to a new genus and can be referred to as Karenia brevis (Davis) Hansen and Moestrup. However, for the consistency of this program particularly for progress reports, the original name will be cited to lessen confusion.]

Progress Summary:

1999 Process Cruises. Process cruises aboard the R/V Pelican from September 9 through October 1, 1999, were not covered in the last annual report and are included here.

Leg A (September 9?14) surveyed bloom conditions in the ECOHAB: Florida Control Volume between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. A small bloom patch was located just offshore of Sanibel Island on September 12. An intensive diel sampling effort was conducted on September 13. Growth cycle measurements indicated that the cells were growing at a relatively rapid rate, suggesting that this was a bloom in the early stage of development. Remote sensing imagery was used to track the chlorophyll signature of this patch over several weeks as the intensity increased and the patch moved northward.

After the passage of Hurricane Floyd, Leg B transited to the Panama City, Florida, area on September 15. High cell counts were detected mainly along the coastline in association with water having Sigma-t values in the range of 22.2 to 22.6 kg m-3. Extensive sampling of the water column and sediments was conducted to evaluate the life and growth cycle characteristics of this bloom population as well as the fate and effects of the toxins and microbial associations within the bloom.

Leg C was spent close to shore off Destin, Florida, where the bloom was most concentrated. Work continued to focus on growth cycle and toxin fate and effects including toxin distribution in fish tissue collected in and around the bloom patch. The relationship of swimming behavior and cellular biochemical pools was examined in relation to time of day and position in the water column. The growth rates observed during the Panhandle legs were significantly lower, which was consistent with the fact that the bloom had been in existence for more than a month. The pigment gyroxanthin-diester has been used as a "biomarker" for Gymnodinium breve (and breve-like species). During Leg C, the phytoplankton community was dominated by G. breve and gyroxanthin-diester was very strongly correlated with chlorophyll a.

2000 Process Cruises. ECOHAB:Florida process cruises were undertaken from September 11 though 15, 2000, on the R/V Suncoaster and from September 17 though October 6, 2000, on the R/V Pelican.

Leg A was conducted in the ECOHAB:Florida control box between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. It carried out a detailed survey to locate a red tide bloom for the process studies planned for the later cruises. Although red tide cells were found throughout the control box, they were at very low concentrations, insufficient for most of the process studies.

During Leg B of the process cruise, cell counts were still too low for many of the process studies planned for the later part of the cruise. Therefore, it was decided to transit to an intensive red tide bloom off the Florida panhandle near Panama City. CODE drifters were employed during Legs C and D to track bloom patches. These drifters were drogued to track the surface layer (and its entrained bloom population) of the water column. With this approach it was possible to sample a bloom patch for 89 hours as it was advected by surface currents.

Leg C was heavily focused on the fate and effects of brevetoxin.

Leg D was within the intensive red tide bloom off Panama City, Florida. Results from HPLC analysis of pigment samples collected during this cruise showed a very consistent ratio of the pigment gyroxanthin-diester to chlorophyll in the Gymnodinium breve population. Although the phytoplankton community was not monospecific, it was dominated by G. breve. Chemo-taxonomic analysis of the community structure is currently underway. Additionally, the pigment analysis results show a light acclimation structure over the water column, providing some assurance that the observed vertical distribution patterns of G. breve were not simply due to physical mixing. Process cruises for 1998, 1999, and 2000 can be accessed at http://www.mote.org/~pederson/ecohab.phtml for cruise tracks and findings.

Monthly Offshore Small Boat Transects. One ECOHAB:Florida transect, monitoring seven stations between 1 and 50 km offshore, was conducted each month in conjunction with thee additional Mote/FMRI transects each month, except November, during this reporting period. These transects included profiling casts of a SeaBird SBE-19. The chlorophyll-rich benthic layers evident in the relative fluorescence cross-sections of many previous transects had declined during this period. There was a bloom of G. breve during the October 12 transect, and cell counts matched very well with the chlorophyll fluorescence cross section. At the 15-m isobath (ECO10), there was very good correlation between fluorescence and the presence of G. breve. Cross-sections show that the water structure along the Sarasota transect line was horizontally stratified. The cross-sections for December 8 showed a vertical column of higher density water between the 10- and 25-m isobaths, trapped between lower density water masses inshore and offshore of this structure. This structure could have been the result of an upwelling event in this region. Between April and June 2000, a weak stratification developed along the Sarasota transect. Although a true pycnocline never developed, vertical differences in water density became apparent during this time (e.g., horizontal contours). Temperatures rose from a high of 24 C in April to a high of 29 C in June. Relative fluorescence profiles indicate that chlorophyll was low for most of the transect, with patches of higher chlorophyll building inshore. The transect on September 11 was truncated due to rough seas. Cross-sections show that the water column structure was homogeneous with little or no indications of stratification. Sigma-t (water density) was in the range of 22 to 23 kg m-3, which appears to be the preferred range for G. breve blooms. However, there was only one station (September 11, ECO30, bottom) that had G. breve cells present. No G. breve cells were detected in surface water samples, and no brevetoxins were detected. Nutrient analyses were performed on near-surface and near-bottom water samples from some of the transects. These data are undergoing assessment and interpretation. Analytical parameters included dissolved ammonium-nitrogen, dissolved nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, dissolved ortho-phosphorus, dissolved silicates, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll (corrected for pheophytin), pheophytin, chlorophylls a, b, and c, iron, and manganese. Hydrographic cross sections along the Sarasota line developed from these data can be viewed at http://www.mote.org/~pederson/ecotrans.phtml.

Hydrographic Cruises (separate EPA award R826792-01-0, but part of ECOHAB:Florida, see report for June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2000 for more information, PI G. Vargo, University of South Florida). This component of ECOHAB:Florida has collected water column samples from >70 locations during monthly quasi-synoptic cruises for hydrographic information, phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll and particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, live G. breve counts from surface samples and near bottom samples from selected locations, preserved samples for total phytoplankton abundance and species composition (analyzed by others), total dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus, inorganic nutrients samples (analyzed by others), and water column samples for the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. (a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium). Responsibilities also include the collection of continuous, underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, light transmission, particle scattering, temperature, and salinity and processing the data stream for output to all Principal Investigators (PIs) as a georeferenced database and maps. This latter responsibility is funded by the NOAA section of this project. All of this information is disseminated to the other co-PIs on the project via ASCII files and figures available from the ECOHAB:Florida FTP site and/or Web site. As of November 2000, we have completed 30 monthly synoptic cruises. Some of the highlights of these monthly hydrographic cruises follow.

  1. Two of the thee G. breve blooms occurring in this study were first seen >15 km offshore, supporting an offshore initiation area for G. breve populations. Elevated populations were already present when the third bloom was seen during late summer 2000, suggesting prior initiation and transport into the study region.

  2. Since inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the water column of the West Florida shelf are typically <0.5 M N and <0.3 M P, the shelf can be considered oligotrophic. Therefore, other nutrient sources are required to support bloom populations.

  3. DON concentrations in estuarine and offshore waters range from 5 to >15 M and may serve as a source of N to support growth and elevated biomass.

  4. Mid- to late-summer blooms of the diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum, which often precede G. breve blooms, appear to be stimulated by iron input from Saharan dust events and may act as a source of organic N via excretion of amino acids or inorganic N after bacterial breakdown of the excretory products and particulate matter.

  5. Ongoing studies are aimed at distinguishing between offshore and coastal sources of utilizable DON.

  6. Wind direction, coastal currents, temperature, and salinity fronts are key to bloom movement and bloom development.

Life Cycle, Cell Cycle and Growth Regulatory Mechanisms in G. breve. Once initiated, the development of a G. breve bloom proceeds though asexual cell division. In both laboratory and field populations, G. breve growth rates are consistently found to average 0.2-0.5 divisions per day. Like most phototrophic dinoflagellates, the cell cycle in G. breve appears to be under the control of a circadian rhythm. Consequently, the cell cycle is phased to the diel cycle, such that the portion of the population destined to divide on a given day enters S- phase (DNA synthesis) 6-8 h into the light phase and enters mitosis 12-15 h later, during the dark. Naturally occurring blooms, observed between years 1998 and 2000 on ECOHAB cruises, exhibit similar diel cell cycle phasing. In laboratory cultures, the dark/light or "dawn" transition was shown to provide the diel cue that serves to entrain the G. breve cell cycle: a forward or backward shift in the timing of this cue results in a concomitant shift in the timing of S-phase entry. We have identified by western blotting and immunolocalization two key components of the cell cycle regulatory complex that are known in higher eukaryotes to control entry into both S-phase and mitosis: cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK). Inhibition of the activity of this complex with a specific CDK inhibitor, olomoucine, blocks the G. breve cell cycle both prior to S-phase and prior to mitosis and demonstrates a functional role for this complex in cell cycle regulation. Our current work focuses on the mechanisms by which the diel entraining signal acts on these cell cycle regulators to control cell cycle progression. Field samples for G. breve life cycle studies were collected and maintained for screening with newly developed molecular probes. In addition, sediment samples are being incubated in the light with nutrients to examine excysted dinoflagellates. Sediment samples stored at ambient temperature in the dark produced armored and unarmored dinoflagellates once exposed to growth conditions, but to date none have produced G. breve cells. Clonal cultures from blooms were established and maintained with other G. breve isolates for genetic crosses of heterothallic strains. The known homothallic strain produced gametes that fused, but the resultant planozygote was not viable 24 h later. Proposed work by two collaborators will in the third and fourth years address the genetics of different geographic isolates as well as G. breve-like species that co-occur in the Gulf of Mexico and on the West Florida shelf. These species (year 2000) are related to G. breve and morphologically are very similar to several species being described from New Zealand.

Fate and Effects of Toxins. Samples were collected off the Florida west coast during a non-bloom period and also during thee bloom periods between October 1999 and October 2000. Water and phytoplankton samples were collected at surface, mid, and bottom depths. Benthic pinfish Lagodon rhomboides, planktonic thead herring Opisthonema oglinum, zooplankton, sediment, and representative benthic invertebrate samples were collected at selected stations. Samples were processed for brevetoxins (PbTx-2 and PbTx-3) by several methods including MEKC-LIF, receptor-binding assay, and HPLC. Selected fish tissues were also evaluated by histopathology and immunocytochemistry. Brevetoxins in the water column were processed by two different methods, one to distinguish toxins associated with suspended particles from dissolved toxins and the other to distinguish intracellular from extracellular toxins. All sediment, water, and biota samples collected during the non-bloom period were negative for brevetoxins. During a bloom, most of the brevetoxins in the water column were associated with particles (and cells) with very little in a true "dissolved" state. Early stages of the bloom indicated that most of the toxins were intracellular. The extracellular toxins increased relative to intracellular toxins as the bloom progressed. Low concentrations of PbTx2 (<0.5-11.8 ng/g) and PbTx-3 (<0.5-2.9 ng/g) were detected in sediment samples. There was no positive correlation of brevetoxins in sediments and G. breve cell numbers in the overlying water column. The persistence of a bloom may have a greater effect on sediment brevetoxin concentrations than transient high G. breve concentrations. From a range of benthic animals tested, only shrimp, clams, and anemones were positive for brevetoxins. PbTx-2 (7.6-282 ng/g) and PbTx-3 (1.7-71ng/g) were detected in mixed zooplankton collected when G. breve cell numbers ranged between 0.74-2.85 x 106 cells/L. PbTx-2 (0.62-320 ng/g) and PbTx-3 (0.08-85 ng/g) were detected in both fish species, but only in specific tissues. Planktonic fish had higher brevetoxin concentrations than benthic fish. Brevetoxin-induced pathology was not detected. PbTx-2 and PbTx-3 concentrations in fish tissues and whole zooplankton samples were not correlated with G. breve counts, but this does not take into account prior history of exposure or the presence of extracellular toxins in water. Potential trophic linkages between G. breve, extracellular brevetoxins, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish are confirmed. A new method for brevetoxin analysis, capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection, was tested and proved sensitive enough to detect brevetoxin in as few as 15 Acartias. Combined work on grazing of copepods on toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia and the brevetoxin trophic transfer was presented at the IXth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms in Hobart, Tasmania. During the September 2000 ECOHAB, a series of depuration experiments were completed onboard using size-fractionated (333 and 62 m) zooplankton samples. Brevetoxin analyses are scheduled to be completed by February 2001. Preliminary copepod behavioral experiments were conducted during the fall of 2000 with Dr. Richard Forward and John Cohen using Acartia tonsa and Temora turbinata that were collected from the plankton and maintained in the laboratory. Collectively, these preliminary experiments indicate: (1) exposure to G. breve affects these two copepod species, but there are species differences; (2) mortality occurred at a dinoflagellate concentration that is typically seen in blooms; and (3) swimming speed, rate of change in swimming direction, and photoresponses involved in DVM are also altered at this concentration. Thus, mortality, swimming, and photoresponses can be used to assess the effects of G. breve on copepods.

Modeling (non EPA, funded by NOAA, Walsh and Wiesberg, PIs, University of South Florida). Prediction of the origin, transport, and fate of Gymnodinium breve blooms on the West Florida shelf is the goal of the ECOHAB: Florida project based on surveys, cruises, arrays of current meters, laboratory experiments, biology and circulation submodels, and coupled bio-optical models. We have used one-dimensional models to specify the rules of engagement between G. breve and other functional groups of phytoplankton, two-dimensional models to explore the consequences of their interaction with the microbial food web, and thee-dimensional models to predict their transport, landfall, and residence time at the surface of the sea. From our simulation analyses thus far, we found that: (1) diatoms win when estuarine and shelf-break supplies of nitrate are made available to a model community of small and large diatoms, coccoid cyanophytes and Trichodesmium, non-toxic and red-tide dinoflagellates, microflagellates, and coccolithophores; (2) a numerical recipe for large red tides of G. breve instead requires DON supplies mediated by iron-starved, nitrogen-fixers in response to Saharan dust events, while their small blooms may persist on sediment sources of DON; (3) selective grazing must still be exerted on the other non-toxic dinoflagellates by copepods; (4) light-cued vertical migration of G. breve in relation to seasonal changes of summer downwelling and fall/winter upwelling flow fields determines both their duration within the first optical depth as a remotely-sensed signal and the intensity of red tide landfalls along the barrier islands and beaches of West Florida; (5) once grown on distinct nitrate and DON supplies, aggregation within near-bottom convergence zones of the inner shelf accelerates accumulation of both diatoms and dinoflagellates; and (6) termination of G. breve blooms is likely to result from physical mechanisms and/or cumulative, biomass-dependent losses in the form of UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

Data Management and Products. The FTP site was set up in October 1999. Data from cruises and transects are available at that site. Metadata for ECOHAB:Florida has been collected from most PIs and are available at the FTP site. All PIs that have submitted metadata and the EPA and NOAA federal project managers have access to the site via a password. The first and second year cruise and transect data from this site will be transferred to NODC before June 2001 for archiving. A Web page is maintained for the general program and eventually will have proposals, reports, references, PIs, and data summaries relating to ECOHAB:Florida. Important Web sites are mentioned within the text of this report. More than 34 papers are published, in press, or submitted and >34 presentations (oral and poster) have been made at major meetings. See http://www.floridamarine.org Exit EPA icon for a listing of these ECOHAB publications and presentations.

Future Activities:

In the third and fourth years, proposed work by two collaborators will address the genetics of different geographic isolates as well as G. breve-like species that co-occur in the Gulf of Mexico and on the West Florida shelf. These species (year 2000) are related to G. breve and morphologically are very similar to several species being described from New Zealand.


Journal Articles on this Report : 24 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 80 publications 27 publications in selected types All 25 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Walsh JJ, Bissett WP, Dieterle DA, Fanning KA. A numerical analysis of the phytoplankton composition and optical properties of the water column during 1998 off the west coast of Florida. Journal of Marine Research. R827085 (2000)
R827085 (2001)
R827085 (2002)
not available
Journal Article Doucette GJ, McGovern ER, Babinchak JA. Algicidal bacteria active against Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae). I. Bacterial isolation and characterization of killing activity 1,3. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1447-1454. R827085 (2000)
R827085 (2001)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Evens TJ, Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Chapman DJ, Schofield OME. Photophysiological responses of the toxic red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) under natural sunlight. Journal of Plankton Research 2001;23(11):1177-1194. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford Journals-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford Journals-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Heil CA, Vargo GA, Patch J, Lester K, Merkt R, Neely MB, Spence DN, Kirkpatrick G, Pederson B, Walsh JJ. A Comparison of the Holm-Hansen and Welshmeyer chlorophyll a methods in west Florida shelf waters. Limnology and Oceanography. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Moline MA, Schofield O. Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations. Limnology and Oceanography 2000;45(2):467-471. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R825243 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASLO-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lenes JM, Darrow BP, Cattrall C, Heil CA, Callahan M, Vargo GA, Byrne RH, Prospero JM, Bates DE, Fanning KA, Walsh JJ. Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Limnology and Oceanography 2001;46(6):1261-1277. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R826792 (2000)
  • Full-text: ASLO-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO
    Exit
  • Journal Article Liu G, Janowitz GS, Kamykowski D. Influence of environmental nutrient conditions on Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) population dynamics: a numerical study. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2001;213:13-37. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Liu G, Janowitz GS, Kamykowski D. Influence of current shear on Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) population dynamics: a numerical study. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2002;231:47-66. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R829370 (2002)
    R829370 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lohrenz SE, Fahnenstiel GL, Kirkpatrick GJ, Carroll CL, Kelly KA. Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1438-1446. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Dionigi CP, Tester PA. What is the importance for understanding the molecular, cellular, and ecophysiological bases of harmful algal blooms? Journal of Phycology 1999;35:1353-1355. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Pederson BL, Millie DF, Kirkpatrick GJ. Accumulation of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve Davis, along coastal density fronts. Journal of Marine Systems. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    not available
    Journal Article Penta B, Walsh JJ, Tomas C, Vargo GA. Phytoplankton competition on the west Florida shelf: a simulation analysis with "red tide" implications. Limnology and Oceanography. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Pierce RH, Kirkpatrick GJ. Innovative techniques for harmful algal toxin analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2001;20(1):107-114. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Schofield O, Gryzmski J, Bissett WP, Kirkpatrick GJ, Millie DF, Moline M, Roesler CS. Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream? Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1477-1496. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
    R825243 (1999)
    R825243 (Final)
  • Full-text: Cal Poly - PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Dionigi CP, Schofield O, Kirkpatrick GJ, Tester PA. The importance of understanding the molecular, cellular, and ecophysiological bases of harmful algal blooms. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6S):1353-1355. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Other: Wiley Online-Citation
    Exit
  • Journal Article Tester PA, Turner JT, Shea D. Vectorial transport of toxins from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve through copepods to fish. Journal of Plankton Research 2000;22(1):47-62. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford Journals
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford Journals-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Van Dolah FM, Leighfield TA. Diel phasing of the cell-cycle in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. Journal of Phycology 1999;35(6):1404-1411. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Steidinger KA. Saharan dust and Florida red tides: the cyanophyte connection. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 2001;106(C6):11597-11612. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: AGU
    Exit
  • Other: USF-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Penta B, Dieterle DA, Bissett WP. Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 2001;7(5):1369-1383. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Haddad KD, Dieterle DA, Weisberg RH, Li ZJ, Yang HJ, Muller-Karger FE, Heil CA, Bissett WP. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida. Continental Shelf Research 2002;22(1):15-38. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDIrect - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Walsh JJ, Vargo GA, Weisberg RH, Kirkpatrick GJ, Fanning KA, Sutton T, Bissett WP. Isotope delineation of the phytoplankton response to a Loop Current intrusion on the west Florida shelf. Continental Shelf Research. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    not available
    Journal Article Weisberg RH, Black BD, Li L. An upwelling case study on Florida's west coast. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 2000;105(C5):11459-11469. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: USF-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Weisberg RH, Li Z, Muller-Karger F. West Florida shelf response to local wind forcing: April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 2001;106(C12):31239-31262. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: USF - Full Text - HTML
    Exit
  • Journal Article Yang H, Weisberg RH. Response of the West Florida shelf circulation to climatological wind stress forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 1999;104(C3):5301-5320. R827085 (2000)
    R827085 (2001)
    R827085 (Final)
  • Full-text: USF-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Florida, FL, ecology, Gymnodinium breve, red tide, algal bloom, oceanography, limnology., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Geographic Area, Waste, Water, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Bioavailability, Ecology, Contaminated Sediments, Ecosystem/Assessment/Indicators, Ecosystem Protection, Health Risk Assessment, Oceanography, Ecological Effects - Environmental Exposure & Risk, algal blooms, Southeast, Ecology and Ecosystems, Biology, Ecological Indicators, ecological effects, ecological exposure, red tides, harmful algal blooms, ecological modeling, contaminated sediment, brevetoxins, dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, West Coast of Florida, Gymnodinium breve toxins, ECOHAB, dinoflagellate, ecological models, Florida

    Relevant Websites:

    http://research.myfwc.com/features/default.asp?id=1341 exit EPA
    http://www.mote.org/index.php?src= exit EPA

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • Final Report