2014 Progress Report: Experimental Interventions to Facilitate Clean Cookstove Adoption, Promote Clean Indoor Air, and Mitigate Climate ChangeEPA Grant Number: R835421
Title: Experimental Interventions to Facilitate Clean Cookstove Adoption, Promote Clean Indoor Air, and Mitigate Climate Change
Investigators: Bailis, Robert , Chandar, Mamta , Dwivedi, Puneet , Grieshop, Andrew P , Marshall, Julian D. , Talashery, Pradeep , Unger, Nadine , Zerriffi, Hisham
Current Investigators: Bailis, Robert , Chandar, Mamta , Dwivedi, Puneet , Grieshop, Andrew P , Marshall, Julian D. , Talashery, Pradeep , Unger, Nadine , Zerriffi, Hisham
Institution: Yale University , Jagriti , North Carolina State University , SAMUHA , University of British Columbia , University of Georgia , University of Minnesota
Current Institution: Stockholm Environment Institute , North Carolina State University , University of British Columbia , Yale University
EPA Project Officer: Keating, Terry
Project Period: March 1, 2014 through February 28, 2017 (Extended to August 31, 2018)
Project Period Covered by this Report: March 1, 2014 through February 28,2015
Project Amount: $1,499,985
RFA: Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating, and Lighting (2012) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Global Climate Change , Air Quality and Air Toxics , Tribal Environmental Health Research , Climate Change , Air
This project has four broad objectives linked to improvements in clean stove design and dissemination and impacts on health and climate: (1) assess the acceptability and availability of stove technologies and fuels, (2) experiment by offering stoves for free or at a subsidy and under varying social interactions to determine the impact of these factors on stove adoption rates and outcomes, (3) measure in situ impacts of stove adoption on air pollution, and climate-forcing, and (4) model the impacts of widespread stove adoption on regional and global climate through a range of scenarios directly informed by data from the field. Fieldwork will occur in Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Karnataka. The experimental stove sales and giveaways are funded by a grant from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC). EPA funding is used only for surveying, monitoring, and field measurements of baseline conditions, and interventions in households with non-vulnerable populations.
During the first year of activities, we laid the foundation necessary for fieldwork. The main accomplishments include obtaining IRB clearance for all collaborating partners and community selection in both states. In May and June 2014, we selected stoves by conducting Controlled Cooking Tests (CCTs) using all of the improved stoves currently available in India. This allowed us to check quality and suitability for our target population. Jagriti and Samuha staff cooked common local dishes. The stoves include three one-pot “rocket”-style stoves, three double-pot chimney stoves, and one forced-draft batch-load stove, as well as an induction stove, an LPG connection, and an improved “tandoor” stove, suitable for HP only.
In September-October 2014, we held trial sales events to assess households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the stoves we plan to include in the study. Using funds from GACC, we offered stoves in nearby communities at varying levels of discounts and found near universal uptake at 75% subsidy, which is the level we decided to use for our trials in HP. We then recruited households to participate in the study, held the first round of stove bazaars at which participating households selected the stove they wish to adopt (February 2015), did baseline socioeconomic surveys (February 2015), and began baseline exposure/emissions measurements (February 2015).
The baseline socioeconomic surveys provided insight into the current stove and fuel combinations in use in HP. Preliminary assessments of baseline survey data showed a greater diversity of stove ownership than we expected. We are not sure of the extent to which diversity of ownership translates into diversity of use, but this will become clear as we monitor stoves with data-logging temperature sensors in the next phase of the project (see Future Activities). In addition, our preliminary data indicate that caste is a strong predictor of biomass dependence. Scheduled caste is the term used by the Indian state to describe historically disenfranchised “untouchable” groups. These groups still tend to be poorer than their general caste colleague. We find 60% of scheduled caste households rely exclusively on biomass and only 12% of general caste households do.
In the first round of bazaars held in HP, the majority of households chose aspirational technologies like LPG and induction stoves. Seventy percent of participants opted for LPG or induction stoves, and another 22% chose an improved tandoor, while only 8% opted for alternative wood burning stoves. By mid-April, GACC funds will be used to provide these stoves to participating households (Future Activities). In HP, baseline measurements of exposures and emissions are also under way.
Major objectives for the upcoming year include:
- Completion of stove handouts in HP (April 2015)
- HH selection, stove bazaars, baseline surveys, pollution measurements, and stove handouts in Karnataka communities (May-August 2015)
- Return to HP for the next round of stove bazaars, conduct interim surveys and pollution measurements to record experiences and impacts of first round of stove adoption, and distribute second round of stoves (October – December 2015).
- Return to Karnataka for the next round of stove bazaars, conduct interim surveys and pollution measurements to record experiences and impacts of first round of stove adoption, and distribute second round of stoves (January 2015 – March 2016).