Final Report: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)

EPA Grant Number: RD835580
Title: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)
Investigators: Westerhoff, Paul , Fairbrother, D. Howard , Theis, Thomas L. , Hutchison, James E. , Plata, Desirée L.
Institution: Arizona State University - Main Campus , Carnegie Mellon University , Colorado School of Mines , Duke University , Oregon State University , Purdue University , The Johns Hopkins University , University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Oregon , Yale University
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: March 19, 2014 through March 18, 2018 (Extended to August 30, 2019)
Project Amount: $5,000,000
RFA: EPA/NSF Networks for Characterizing Chemical Life Cycle (NCCLCs) (2013) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Endocrine Disruptors , Safer Chemicals

Objective:

Because engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have transformative benefits to individuals and society, they are being incorporated into many products. However, tremendous uncertainty presently exists in our ability to predict or manage risks from nano-enabled products across their life cycles. To address knowledge gaps that prevent the sustainable development of nanoenabled products, a highly interdisciplinary group of environmental scientists, engineers, and chemists with well-recognized expertise in NM fabrication, analytics, product release testing, exposure forecasting, high throughput toxicity screening, and life cycle evaluation created a research network on the life cycle of nanomaterials (LCnano). We hypothesized that the desirable physicochemical properties that create unique NM functionality can also influence inherent hazards and potential exposure routes. LCnano’s overarching goal was to elucidate NM property-exposure and property-hazard relationships from a life cycle perspective and to provide predictive models for unintended implications of NMs that will improve design of safe nano-enabled products and processes. To inform risk managers, LCnano employed high throughput functional assays to quantify material attributes that serve as proxies for short- and long-term risk (material exposure, hazard, reactivity, and distribution). To inform designers of nano-enabled products about balances between performance and risk, LCnano evaluated nano-enabled products for facilitating direct and translational methods in the development of material property-exposure and property-hazard relationships for identifying and subsequently minimizing risk for a wide array of existing products, helping ensure sustainable design of future, transformative nano-enabled products.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Because an ad hoc study of the properties of released NMs from thousands of products would have been fruitless, LCnano focused our efforts in four shared NMs (Ag0, TiO2, SiO2, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)) and four industrially- and commercially-relevant product lines:

Product line A: NMs dispersed in liquids used in industrial manufacturing (e.g.,polishing agents)

Product line B: NMs dispersed in products (e.g., foods)

Product line C: NMs embedded in composite polymers (e.g., thermoplastics,membranes for water filtration)

Product line D: NMs coated on the surfaces of flexible polymeric materials (e.g.,textiles).

Results are grouped into 6 themes, summarized below.

Advancing the Environmental Applications of Engineering Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials can be used to treat a wide range of pollutants in water or soils by leveraging their unique properties. Many benefits emerged, including remediating organic-pollutant contaminated soils, removing contaminants from water, enabling advanced oxidation and advanced reduction processes, increasing fertilizer uptake in agricultural applications, and reducing nitrate fertilizer leaching into groundwater, and . Through substantial literature reviews and collection of new field data aimed at understanding the life-cycle trade-offs amongst benefits and hazards of different products, we concluded that nanomaterials posed low risks in drinking water. Life cycle assessments also suggest net benefits exist for using nanotechnology in plant-related agricultural applications.

We also investigated Industrial uses of NMs, including dispersing in liquids to polish products (Product Line A). While the nanomaterials never end up in consumer products, they are released into industrial wastewaters. Through modeling how various III-V elements (Ga, In, As) interact with CMP nanomaterials, LCnano helped advance the understanding of monitoring and safely using these industrial processing agents. LCnano also investigated green synthesis methods for carbon nanotubes and considered applications that would have broad environmental sustainability benefits. Overall we concluded that acetylene-fed CNT growth optimizes energy, performance, and waste metrics. We also learned that low oxygen content carbon nanotubes are promising alternatives to traditional flame retardant materials, showing high efficacy relative to their mass loading, but durability challenges exist.

Nanoparticle Extraction and Detection in a Variety of Matrices

We developed or enhanced – and then applied -- several methods to detect and measure nanoparticles in various matrices (water, tissue, air, polymers, etc). Techniques included programmable thermal analysis and single particle ICP-MS for mass and number concentration, and colorimetric assays for surface reactivity. In addition, extraction methodologies for natural materials (e.g., plant tissue, fish tissue, lung tissue, and bodily fluids), personal care products, and engineering polymers.

Nanomaterial Release Studies

LCnano used several studies to evaluate the release of NMs into water and air during use. We concluded it is possible to select specific techniques to bind nano-silver on textiles (Product Lines C and D) to both achieve their desired function (i.e., reduction in odor-causing bacteria) while minimizing the amount of silver leached into washwater over the life of the nano-enabled textile. Similar findings were observed for nano-silver coated onto desalination reverse osmosis polymeric membranes, indicating the ability to translate findings across product use classes. LCnano examined many other use-phase releases of nanomaterials. For example, engineered nanomaterials integrated into polymers (Product Line C) can add strength and durability to high-traffic floor coatings, but can be released during abrasive use or cleaning processes. Engineered nanoparticles are also used in personal supplements and foods (Product Line B). In household use, these often end up in sewage that conveys the nanomaterials to wastewater treatment plants. In recreational use, nanomaterials in personal care products (e.g., sunscreens) are directly released into the environment (e.g., rivers, lakes, swimming pools). We assessed both of these releases and impacts on wastewater treatment plant performance as well as potential impacts on ecosystem processes. The incorporation of NP into sunscreens had limited ecological risk to the endpoints we selected. As a signature project within LCnano, we developed a multi-university network of outdoor weathering stations across the USA and showed that the extent to which local climate can impact engineered nanomaterial degradation and nanomaterial release depends largely on the materials’ intrinsic ability to resist degradation. Geographic differences in humidity and solar irradiation played a major role in the results for lumber pressure treated with micronized copper; samples weathered in wetter climates were depleted of (i.e., released) readily accessible copper within the first year of exposure, while in drier climates, the lack of precipitation led to wood drying and cracking – which in turn led to sustained copper release after a year of weathering. However, polymer nanocomposites composed of carbon nanotubes or silver nanoparticles in either polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), or polycaprolactone released less than 5% of their original imbedded nanomaterial irrespective of the climate to which they were exposed. End-of-life release of nanomaterials (Product Line C) from products is important to quantify, and critical inputs for LCA models. We investigated fate of quantum dot enabled screen displays and nanomaterials in photovoltaic panels. Additionally, because metals in end-of-life wastestreams are important to recover, we investigated the amount and nano-forms of metalbased materials in sewage and sewage sludges, and assessed potential strategies (including nano-enabled treatment technologies) to recover earth abundant and higher value metals.

Nanotoxicological Studies and Impacts Following Nanomaterial Release from Products

In addition to understanding exposure to nanomaterials by developing methods to extract nanomaterials from products, or assess their release during use, LCnano researchers also assessed the potential hazard of nanomaterials. We focused heavily on advancing and applying use of zebrafish embryo high-throughput testing platforms. We found no relationship between the variation in ROS generation and variability in toxicity outcomes when exposing embryonic zebrafish to oxygen-functionalized MWCNTs. The materials toxicity was mostly a function of surface charge and the morphology of the material aggregate in solution, which has not been attributed to toxicity outcomes before. e also evaluated toxicity of nanomaterials versus organic chemicals used in personal care products (e.g., sunscreens and sunblocks) using zebrafish embryo assays. The high throughput platforms faced some challenges related to sedimentation of nanomaterials across the 5-day test, but overall the tests provided valuable tools to understand structure-activity relationships related to both exposure and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Engineered nanomaterials can impact cells in the human digestive system, when nanoenabled foods (Product Line B) are ingested. We observed that nano-sized additives in some foods underwent much faster dissolution than larger-sized bulk additives, and this was considered advantageous for delivering nutrients in the gut. While studies can show adverse impacts on gut microvilli, most in vivo models lack the complexity in the human gut. Ongoing work shows that nanosilver, at dosages recommended in supplements, can impact the production of short-chain fatty acids and change the microbial ecology of bacteria in tests conducted using donated human fecal material. While it may initially appear unrelated, the dense biological community in biological wastewater treatment plants can be viewed as a nacroscale view of our gut. We found that WWTPs efficiently removed nanomaterials from wastewater, and only under very high shock loadings do nanomaterials impact wastewater treatment plant performance.

Lifecycle Assessment Advances and Studies

LCnano conducted numerous lifecycle assessments, many around nanosilver enabled technologies. For example, we applied LCA models to examine trade-offs between NM use and increasing food shelf-life in plastic food containers (Product Line C or D) impregnated with nanosilver. We also examined tradeoffs when using nanosilver in textiles to reduce odors during use. Throughout LCnano’s duration we were able to integrate findings to develop design tools for when nano-enabling products have net environmental benefits. We concluded that “nanotizing” a product is seldom a “win” for all parties involved. Tradeoffs nearly always exist, hence a decision framework should be used that permits inclusion of multiple criteria and careful weighing of multiple impacts and outcomes. Coordinating data collection to feed into retrospective and forward-looking dynamic LCA models emerged as an essential strategy within LCnano.

Insights into Science of Networked Teams

Because environmental health and safety considerations of nanomaterials represent significant challenges for industry, multi-disciplinary research consortia are needed to address complex challenges around use, material characterization, and toxicity evaluations. As such, understanding team science emerged as an integral assessment aspect of LCnano, and it also emerged as a valuable learning opportunity for the diverse group of researchers. We applied a number of tools, including the KolbeTM profiling survey, to understand instinctive ways people take action. This improved collaboration between the team members. Communication methods among and external to the team were better understood as the project progressed. We also worked with experts to develop public-facing tools, such as a museum  demonstration kit, to better engage and understand nanotechnology.


Journal Articles on this Report : 75 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 138 publications 76 publications in selected types All 76 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Apul OG, Delgado AG, Kidd J, Alam F, Dahlen P, Westerhoff P. Carbonaceous nano-additives augment microwave-enabled thermal remediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):997-1002. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Apul OG, Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein N, Schoepf J, Ladner D, Hristovski KD, Westerhoff P. Superfine powdered activated carbon incorporated into electrospun polystyrene fibers preserve adsorption capacity. Science of the Total Environment 2017;592:458-464. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Azoz S, Gilbertson LM, Hashmi SM, Han P, Sterbinsky GE, Kanaan SA, Zimmerman JB, Pfefferle LD. Enhanced dispersion and electronic performance of single-walled carbon nanotube thin films without surfactant: a comprehensive study of various treatment processes. Carbon 2015;93:1008-1020. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Westerhoff P. Adsorption of III/V ions (In(III), Ga(III) and As(V)) onto SiO2, CeO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles used in the semiconductor industry. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):1014-1026. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Ma H, Westerhoff P. Dry Powder Assay Rapidly Detects Metallic Nanoparticles in Water by Measuring Surface Catalytic Reactivity. Environmental Science Technology 2018: 52 (22);13289–13297 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Zaikova T, Schoepf J, Herckes P, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P. The efficacy and environmental implications of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles in a commercial floor coating. Environmental Science:Nano 2017;4(10):2030-2042. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Westerband EI, Alum A, Brown FC, Abbaszadegan M, Hristovski KD, Hicks AL, Westerhoff PK. Antimicrobial Efficacy and Life Cycle Impact of Silver-Containing Food Containers. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018:6(10):13086-95. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Han B, Zimmerman S, Perreault F, Sinha S, Westerhoff P. Four release tests exhibit variable silver stability from nanoparticle-modified reverse osmosis membranes. Water Research 2018:143;77-86 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Westerhoff P. High-throughput analysis of photocatalytic reactivity of differing TiO2 formulations using 96-well microplate reactors. Chemosphere2019;223:275-84. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bisesi Jr. JH, Merten J, Liu K, Parks AN, Afrooz AR, Glenn JB, Klaine SJ, Kane AS, Saleh NB, Ferguson PL, Sabo-Attwood T. Tracking and quantification of single-walled carbon nanotubes in fish using near infrared fluorescence. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(3):1973-1983. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Brown FC, Bi Y, Chopra SS, Hristovski KD, Westerhoff P, Theis TL. End-of-Life Heavy Metal Releases from Photovoltaic Panels and Quantum Dot Films: Hazardous Waste Concerns or Not?. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering<.em>2018;6(7):9369-74. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Chen S, Yuan Z, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Zhao H, Ni J. Coagulation behaviors of new covalently bound hybrid coagulants (CBHyC) in surface water treatment. Separation and Purification Technology 2018;192:322-8. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Chopra SS, Theis TL. Comparative cradle-to-gate energy assessment of indium phosphide and cadmium selenide quantum dot displays. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):244-254. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Corredor C, Borysiak MD, Wolfer J, Westerhoff P, Posner JD. Colorimetric detection of catalytic reactivity of nanoparticles in complex matrices. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(6):3611-3618. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Deng Y, Petersen EJ, Challis KE, Rabb SA, Holbrook RD, Ranville JF, Nelson BC, Xing B. Multiple method analysis of TiO2 nanoparticle uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants. Environmental Science & Technology2017;51(18):10615-23. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Doudrick K, Nosaka T, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Quantification of graphene and graphene oxide in complex organic matrices. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(1):60-67. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Falinski MM, Plata DL, Chopra SS, Theis TL, Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB. A framework for sustainable nanomaterial selection and design based on performance, hazard, and economic considerations. Nature nanotechnology2018;13(8):708. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Westerhoff P, Capco DG. Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts 
intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation. Cell Biology and
 Toxicology 2014;30(3):169-188. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Capco DG, Westerhoff P. A facile method for separating and enriching nano and submicron particles from titanium dioxide found in food and pharmaceutical products. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0164712 (15 pp.). RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gifford M, Chester M, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Reducing environmental impacts of metal (hydr) oxide nanoparticle embedded anion exchange resins using anticipatory life cycle assessment. Environmental Science-Nano 2016;3(6):1351-60. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Gifford M, Chester M, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Human health tradeoffs in wellhead drinking water treatment: Comparing exposure reduction to embedded life cycle risks. Water Research2018;128:246-54. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Busnaina AA, Isaacs JA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Life cycle impacts and benefits of a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(19):11360-11368. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB, Plata DL, Hutchison JE, Anastas PT. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews 2015;44(16):5758-5777. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Wender BA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Coordinating modeling and experimental research of engineered nanomaterials to improve life cycle assessment studies. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(6):669-682. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Albalghiti EM, Fishman ZS, Perrault F, Corredor C, Posner JD, Elimelech M, Pfefferle LD, Zimmerman JB. Shape-dependent surface reactivity and antimicrobial activity of nano-cupric oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3975-3984. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Melnikov F, Wehmas LC, Anastas PT, Tanguay RL, Zimmerman JB. Toward safer multi-walled carbon nanotube design: establishing a statistical model that relates surface charge and embryonic zebrafish mortality. Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):10-19. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hanigan D, Truong L, Simonich M, Tanguay R, Westerhoff P. Zebrafish embryo toxicity of 15 chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated disinfection by-products. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2017;58:302-310. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Gilbertson LM, Yamani JS, Theis TL, Zimmerman JB. Life cycle payback estimates of nanosilver enabled textiles under different silver loading, release, and laundering scenarios informed by literature review. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(13):7529-7542. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Reed RB, Theis TL, Hanigan D, Huling H, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, MIller J. Environmental impacts of reusable nanoscale silver-coated hospital gowns compared to single-use, disposable gowns. Environmental Science: Nano 2016;3(5):1124-1132. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Theis TL. A comparative life cycle assessment of commercially available household silver-enabled polyester textiles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2017;22(2):256-265. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hinrichs MM, Seager TP, Tracy SJ, Hannah MA. Innovation in the Knowledge Age:implications for collaborative science. Environment Systems and Decisions 2017;37(2):144-155. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hochella MF, Mogk DW, Ranville J, Allen IC, Luther GW, Marr LC, McGrail BP, Murayama M, Qafoku NP, Rosso KM, Sahai N. Natural, incidental, and engineered nanomaterials and their impacts on the Earth system. Science2019;363(6434):eaau8299. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hutchison JE. The road to sustainable nanotechnology: Challenges, progress and opportunities. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering2016;4(11):5907-5914 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Kidd, J. M.; Hanigan, D.; Truong, L.; Hristovski, K.; Tanguay, R.; Westerhoff, P., Developing and interpreting aqueous functional assays for comparative property-activity relationships of different nanoparticles. Science of the Total Environment2018; 628-629:1609-1616 RD835580 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Wang J, Ranville JF, Fairbrother DH. Photodegradation of polymer-CNT nanocomposites: effect of CNT loading and CNT release characteristics. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):967-982.. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Challis KE, Bi Y, Hanigan D, Reed RB, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P, Ranville J, Fairbrother H, Gilbertson LM. Methodology for quantifying engineered nanomaterial release from diverse product matrices under outdoor weathering conditions and implications for life cycle assessment. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(9):1784-1797. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Challis K, Pourzahedi L, Durkin DP, Bi Y, Wang Y, Garland MA, Brown F, Hristovski K, Tanguay RL, Westerhoff P. Copper release and transformation following natural weathering of nano-enabled pressure-treated lumber. Science of the Total Environment 2019;668:234-44. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Li M, Liu J, Zhou Q, Gifford M, Westerhoff P. Effects of pH, soluble organic materials, and hydraulic loading rates on orthophosphate recovery from organic wastes using ion exchange. Journal of cleaner production 2019;217:127-33. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Linkov I, Trump BD, Wender BA, Seager TP, Kennedy AJ, Keisler JM. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods. Nature nanotechnology 2017;12(8):740. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Marks R, Yang T, Westerhoff P, Doudrick K. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide. Water Research 2016;104:11-19. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano MD, Olesik JW, Barber AG, Challis KE, Ranville JF, Single Particle ICP-MS:Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2016;408(19):5053-5074. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano M, Majestic BJ, Jamting AK, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Methods for the detection and characterization of silica colloids by microsecond spICP-MS. Analytical Chemistry 2016;88(9):4733-4741. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Mulchandani A, Westerhoff P. Recovery opportunities for metals and energy from sewage sludges. Bioresource Technology 2016;215:215-226. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Nosaka T, Lankone RS, Bi Y, Fairbrother DH, Westerhoff P, Herckes P. Quantification of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites. Analytical methods. 2018;10(9):1032-7. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O'Connor MP, Coulthard RM, Plata DL. Electrochemical deposition for the separation and recovery of metals using carbon nanotube-enabled filters. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 2018;4(1):58-66. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O’Connor MP, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT, Plata DL. Strategy for material supply chain sustainability: enabling a circular economy in the electronics industry through green engineering. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2016;4(11):5879-5888. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Petersen EJ, Flores-Cervantes DX, Bucheli TD, Elliott LC, Fagan JA, Gogos A, Hanna S, Kagi R, Mansfield E, Bustos AR, Plata DL, Reipa V, Westerhoff P, Winchester MR. Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices:current capabilities, case studies, and future prospects. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(9):4587-4605. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Pourzahedi L, Pandorf M, Ravikumar D, Zimmerman JB, Seager TP, Theis TL, Westerhoff P, Gilbertson LM, Lowry GV. Life cycle considerations of nano-enabled agrochemicals:are today's tools up to the task?. Environmental Science:Nano 2018;5(5):1057-69. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Ravikumar D, Seager TP, Cucurachi S, Prado V, Mutel C. Novel Method of Sensitivity Analysis Improves the Prioritization of Research in Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment of Emerging Technologies. Environmental science & technology 2018;52(11):6534-43. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Faust JJ, Yang Y, Doudrick K, Capco DG, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Characterization of nanomaterials in metal colloid-containing dietary supplement drinks and assessment of their potential interactions after ingestion. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2014;2(7):1616-1624. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Zaikova T, Barber A, Simonich M, Lankone R, Marco M, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Passantino L, Fairbrother DH, Tanguay R, Ranville JF, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff PK. Potential environmental impacts and antimicrobial efficacy of silver-and nanosilver-containing textiles. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):4018-4026. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Martin DP, Bednar AJ, Montano MD, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Multi-day diurnal measurements of Ti-containing nanoparticle and organic sunscreen chemical release during recreational use of a natural surface water Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):69-77. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Rodrigues SM, Demokritou P, Dokoozlian N, Hendren CO, Karn B, Mauter MS, Sadik OA, Safarpour M, Unrine JM, Viers J, Welle P, White JC, Wiesner MR, Lowry GV. Nanotechnology for sustainable food production: promising opportunities and scientific challenges. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):767-781. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Abstract: RSC-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Rong H, Garg S, Westerhoff P, Waite TD. In vitro characterization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the commercially available Mesosilver™ dietary supplement. Environmental Science: Nano 2018;5(11):2686-98. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Schoepf JJ, Bi Y, Kidd J, Herckes P, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Detection and dissolution of needle-like hydroxyapatite nanomaterials in infant formula. NanoImpact 2017 Jan 1;5:22-8. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Seager TP, Trump BD, Poinsatte-Jones K, Linkov I. Why life cycle assessment does not work for synthetic biology. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(11):5861-5862. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Shi W, Xue K, Meshot ER, Plata DL. The carbon nanotube formation parameter space: data mining and mechanistic understanding for efficient resource use. Green Chemistry 2017;19(16):3787-3800. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Shi W, Peng Y, Steiner III SA, Li J, Plata DL. Carbon Dioxide Promotes Dehydrogenation in the Equimolar C2H2‐CO2 Reaction to Synthesize Carbon Nanotubes. Small 2018 Mar;14(11):1703482. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Speed D, Westerhoff P, Sierra-Alvarez R, Draper R, Pantano P, Aravamudhan S, Chen KL, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Bi X, Yang Y, Zeng C, Otero-Gonzalez L, Mikoryak C, Wilson BA, Kosaraju K, Tarannum M, Crawford S, Yi P, Liu X, Babu SV, Moinpour M, Ranville J, Montano M, Corredor C, Posner J, Shadman F. Physical, chemical, and in vitro toxicological characterization of nanoparticles in chemical mechanical planarization suspensions used in the semiconductor industry: towards environmental health and safety assessments.Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(3):227-244. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tiede K, Hanssen SF, Westerhoff P, Fern GJ, Hankin SM, Aitken RJ, Chaudhry Q, Boxall ABA. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):102-110. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Venkatesan AK, Reed RB, Lee S, Bi X, Hanigan D, Yang Y, Ranville JF, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Detection and sizing of Ti-containing particles in recreational waters using single particle ICP-MS. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2018 Jan 1;100(1):120-6. RD835580 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Venkatesan AK, Rodríguez BT, Marcotte AR, Bi X, Schoepf J, Ranville JF, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Using single-particle ICP-MS for monitoring metal-containing particles in tap water. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 2018;4(12):1923-32. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Von Reitzenstein NH, Bi X, Yang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Morphology, structure, and properties of metal oxide/polymer nanocomposite electrospun mats. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2016;133(33):43811. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Wender BA, Prado V, Fantke P, Ravikumar D, Seager TP. Sensitivity-based research prioritization through stochastic characterization modeling. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2018 Feb 1;23(2):324-32. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Westerband EI, Hicks AL. Life cycle impact of nanosilver polymer-food storage containers as a case study informed by literature review. Environmental Science: Nano 2018;5(4):933-45. RD835580 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Westerband EI, Hicks AL. Nanosilver‐Enabled Food Storage Container Tradeoffs: Environmental Impacts Versus Food Savings Benefit, Informed by Literature. Integrated environmental assessment and management 2018 Nov;14(6):769-76. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff P, Lee S, Yang Y, Gordon GW, Hristovski K, Halden RU, Herckes P. Characterization, recovery opportunities, and valuation of metals in municipal sludges from U.S. wastewater treatment plants nationwide. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(16):9479-9488. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff P, Atkinson A, Fortner J, Wong MS, Zimmerman J, Gardea-Torresdey J, Ranville J, Herckes P. Low risk posed by engineered and incidental nanoparticles in drinking water. Nature nanotechnology 2018 Aug;13(8):661. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Wang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Simultaneous removal of nanosilver and fullerene in sequencing batch reactors for biological wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 2015;125:115-121. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Yu Z, Nosaka T, Doudrick K, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Interaction of carbonaceous nanomaterials with wastewater biomass. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2015;9(5):823-831. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Faust JJ, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Capco DG, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Survey of food-grade silica dioxide nanomaterial occurrence, characterization, human gut impacts and fate across its lifecycle. The Science of the Total Environment 2016;565:902-912. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Reed R, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Prospecting nanomaterials in aqueous environments by cloud-point extraction coupled with transmission electron microscopy. The Science of the Total Environment 2017;584-585:515-522. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Zhao H, Wang L, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Ni J. Novel ion-exchange coagulants remove more low molecular weight organics than traditional coagulants. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3897-3904. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Shi W, Plata DL. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: production and applications for environmental sustainability. Green chemistry 2018;20(23):5245-60. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hanigan, D.; Truong, L.; Schoepf, J.; Nosaka, T.; Mulchandani, A.; Tanguay, R. L.; Westerhoff, P., Trade-offs in ecosystem impacts from nanomaterial versus organic chemical ultraviolet filters in sunscreens. In Water Research, Elsevier Ltd:2018; Vol. 139, pp 281-290. RD835580 (Final)
    not available

    Supplemental Keywords:

    nanotechnology, exposure, risk, ecological effects, bioavailability, particulates, effluent, metals, aquatic, water, life cycle analysis, Bayesian, environmental chemistry, engineering, modeling, measurement methods, risk, hazard

    Relevant Websites:

    ASU - LC Nano Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2016 Progress Report
  • 2017 Progress Report
  • 2018 Progress Report