2018 Progress Report: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)

EPA Grant Number: RD835580
Title: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)
Investigators: Westerhoff, Paul , Fairbrother, D. Howard , Hutchison, James E. , Plata, Desirée L. , Theis, Thomas L.
Institution: Arizona State University - Main Campus , Carnegie Mellon University , Colorado School of Mines , Duke University , Oregon State University , Purdue University , The Johns Hopkins University , University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Oregon , Yale University
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: March 19, 2014 through March 18, 2018 (Extended to August 30, 2019)
Project Period Covered by this Report: March 19, 2018 through March 18,2019
Project Amount: $5,000,000
RFA: EPA/NSF Networks for Characterizing Chemical Life Cycle (NCCLCs) (2013) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Endocrine Disruptors , Safer Chemicals

Objective:

Because engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have transformative benefits to individuals and society, they are being incorporated into many products. However, tremendous uncertainty presently exists in our ability to predict or manage risks from nano-enabled products across their life cycles. This project involves an interdisciplinary team of chemists, toxicologists, scientists, engineers, and social scientists to evaluate the trade-offs between intended function of NMs in products and risks to humans and the environment across their life cycle from creation, through use and disposal.

We hypothesize that the desirable physicochemical properties that create unique NM functionality can also influence inherent hazards and potential exposure routes. LCnano's overarching goal is to elucidate NM property-exposure and property-hazard relationships from a life cycle perspective and to provide predictive models for unintended implications of NMs that will improve design of safe nano-enabled products and processes. To inform risk managers, LCnano will employ high throughput functional assays to quantify material attributes that serve as proxies for short- and long-term risk (material exposure, hazard, reactivity, and distribution). To inform designers of nano-enabled products about balances between performance and risk, LCnano will evaluate nano-enabled products for facilitating direct and translational methods in the development of material property-exposure and property-hazard relationships for identifying and subsequently minimizing risk for a wide array of existing products, helping ensure sustainable design of future, transformative nano-enabled products.

Progress Summary:

We concluded most of the lab and field research on the various workplans organized around the four nano-enabled product lines:

Product-line A, NMs used in industrial processing. NMs used in industrial processing have the highest potential for environmental release. With leveraged funding from the Semiconductor Research Corporation, extensive work was performed on chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) nanoparticles used in processing semiconductor chips. These NMs have low toxicity, but some (CeO2) can adsorb ions (e.g., arsenate) in wastestreams and affect the ion fate during wastewater treatment. This part of the research program was completed in 2017. Additional publications emerged in 2018 (see list below).

Product Line B, NMs dispersed in products. We continued to examine NPs in food products, and this emerged as the focus of a dissertation that developed "Tiered Approach to Detect Nanomaterials in Food and Environmental Matrices". Exposure assessment is necessary for hazard assessment, life cycle analysis, and environmental monitoring. Current nanomaterial detection techniques on complex matrices are expensive and time intensive, requiring weeks of sample preparation and detection by specialized equipment, limiting the feasibility of large-scale monitoring of NMs. A need exists to develop a rapid pre-screening technique to detect, within minutes, nanomaterials in complex matrices. The goal of the dissertation was to develop a tiered process to detect and characterize nanomaterials in consumer products and environmental samples. The approach is accomplished through a two tier rapid screening process to screen likely presence/absence of elements present in common nanomaterials at environmentally relevant concentrations followed by a more intensive three tier characterization process, if nanomaterials are likely to occur. The focus is on SiO2 and TiO2 nanomaterials with additional work performed on hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)). The five step tiered process is as follows: 1) screen for elements in the sample by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), 2) extract nanomaterials from the sample and screen for extracted elements by LIBS and XRF, 3) confirm presence and elemental composition of nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, 4) quantify the elemental composition of the sample by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry, and 5) identify mineral phase of crystalline material by X-ray diffraction. We found LIBS to be an accurate method to detect Si and Ti in food matrices (tier one approach) with strong agreement with the product label, detecting Si and Ti in 93% and 89% of the samples labeled as containing each material, respectively. In addition XRF identified Ti, Si, and Ca in 100% of food samples TEM-confirmed to contain Ti, Si, and Ca respectively. As a tier two approach, LIBS on the 0.2 mm filter identified nano silicon in 42% of samples confirmed by TEM to contain nano Si and 67% of TEM-confirmed samples to contain Ti. XRF identified Si, Ti, and Ca loaded on to a 0.1 µm filter and Ti in the surfactant rich phase of CPE of water and water with NOM.

Another study was finalized on the use of graphitic nanomaterials as a fertilizer amendment. Nitrogen leaching into groundwater occurs in nearly all intensively-fertilized agriculture applications and poses growing environmental and human health risks such as eutrophication and drinking water contamination. This potential for contamination will intensify as the population grows. This study focused on nitrate leaching through soil during growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a high value crop in a region (Salinas Valley, CA) suffering from nitrate-contaminated water. 2-D graphite carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) produced via an electrochemical exfoliation process, resulting in ~8 nm thickness and 250–850 nm width, were combined with fertilizer and applied to the lettuce in soil to test the CNP effect on yield, nitrate leaching, and plant nutrient uptake. Greenhouse experiments were conducted under different nutrient loadings and soil matrices. CNP addition did not inhibit the lettuce leaf yield, and decreased nitrate leaching in several scenarios. When fertilizer was reduced to 70% of the recommended dose and combined with less than 1%wt CNPs, nitrate leaching decreased by 57% with no significant difference in yield compared to the 100% recommended fertilizer dose without CNPs. Increasing the soil's hydraulic conductivity enhanced the ability of CNPs to reduce nitrate leaching and increase plant nutrient uptake. CNP addition to mineral fertilizer blends may allow lower fertilizer doses and thus decrease nitrate infiltration through the soil without comprising yields.

Product Line C, NMs embedded in products & polymers. The network created 5 identical outdoor weathering stations across the USA (AZ, PA, OR, CO, and near the District of Columbia) where NMs embedded in polymers could be tested. Long term exposures (monthly data for 12-18 months) have been collected and published that relate NM release potential to variations in climate (temperature, solar intensity, rain/snow). This study was concluded, and in addition to publishing several specific papers on the study, a broader holistic paper was recently submitted.

An example finding is related to Copper release and transformation following natural weathering of nano-enabled pressure-treated lumber. Commercially available lumber pressure-treated with micronized copper azole (MCA), which actually contains copper nanoparticles, has largely replaced other inorganic biocides in the USA, yet little is known about the influence of different outdoor environmental conditions on the release of ionic, nano-scale or larger copper from these widely used products. Therefore, we naturally weathered for 18 months in five different climates across the continental United States and leachate from these exposures was quantified copper release monthly while simultaneously recording local weather conditions to determine the extent to which local climate regulated the release of copper during its use phase. Additionally, to simulate the end-of-life (EOL) phase of this product, weathered and non-weathered MCA-wood samples were exposed to simulated landfill conditions to assess copper release. MCA-wood had an initial copper content of 0.23%w/w (± 0.07) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images coupled with elemental mapping indicated that copper nanoparticles are present as micron-sized aggregates attached to wood particulates. Following 18 months of weathering, two release trends were observed: (1) in cooler, wetter climates copper release was greatest at the beginning of the weathering studies and occurred primarily during the first few months of weathering, as the result of surface/near-surface copper release, and (2) in warmer, drier climates with significantly less precipitation, less copper was initially reduced due to limited precipitation, however, as the wood dried and cracked, the exposed surface area increased; this facilitated increased copper release later in the product lifetime. Single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis indicated that the predominant form of released copper was ionic and particles less than 450 nm in size, which were largely resistant to dissolution over the course of 6 weeks. Simulated EoL testing revealed that non-weathered MCA wood was resistant to copper leaching (< 10% of initially embedded copper released) with weathered MCA-wood samples releasing slight less copper during simulated landfill testing. Low humidity and intense sun exposure damaged pressure treated lumber more than in moist environments, and therefore clearly demonstrates the importance of simulating different use-phase environments to thoroughly understand the potential of nano-enabled products (e.g., MCA lumber) to release nanoparticles into the environment. Taken together, findings from this study provide data necessary to both develop a more complete evaluation of pressure treated lumber's environmental/human health burden as well as form a more accurate cradle-to-grave Life Cycle Assessment of this product.

Product Line D, NMs coated on surfaces. NMs on surfaces can be effective to manipulate light, heat, fire, pollutants, or disinfect bacteria. We develop new ways to coat NP on glass and membranes. Another highlight was studying attachment, detection and flame retardance of carbon nanotubes on fabrics.Flame retardants (FRs) are routinely applied to consumer products such as clothing and furniture upholstery to slow or prevent fire ignition or growth by physical/chemical mechanisms. The most commonly used flame retardants have historically been halogenated molecules. However, their bioaccumulation in mammals has led to their banning. As an alternative FR, this study investigated the potential of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) coating material on polyester fabric. CNMs mass loadings on fabrics were verified by programmed thermal analysis (PTA) and tested for flame retardancy by a new assessing approach based on a standardized method. Select CNMs showed comparable flame retardant properties to traditional FR with less mass loadings. The oxygen content of CNMs, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), emerged as a critical parameter that impacted flame retardancy with higher oxygen content in the CNM materials resulting in reduced flame retardant efficacy of the coating. Non nano-sized carbonaceous material such a carbon black did not exhibit the same flame retardant properties as CNMs. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amine functionalized multi-walled carbon nantoubes (NH2-MWCNT) showed similar FR properties to current flame retardants but at significantly lower mass loadings and hence are promising alternatives that warrant further investigation.

Cross-product line findings. The network has significantly advanced nano-analytics capable of measuring all types of nanoparticles (metallic, carbon based) in water, plastics, foods, and other matrices at environmentally relevant concentrations. This include advancing single particle ICP-MS, but also laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and portable XRD capabilities. The team developed and validated techniques to extract NMs from water (e.g., cloud point extraction), creams (solvent extraction), powders (centrifugation), plastics (HIF solvent mixtures), and biological tissues (enzymes) to enable their rapid and accurate characterization. The team also advanced the use of zebra fish embryo as part of high throughput testing of NMs.

The team has integrated both quantitative life cycle analysis as well as taking a life cycle perspective towards testing and future design of nano-enabled products. Collectively, the network has developed an emerging concept that maximizes the efficacy (intended design function of nanomaterials) while minimizing the environmental impact across its life cycle (from creation to end-of-life). These concepts are manifested through experimental data, modeling and publication of conceptual models in high impact journals.

Future Activities:

Our team continues to submit detailed research papers and broader impact review papers based upon the project. The final report is also being prepared.


Journal Articles on this Report : 70 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 133 publications 72 publications in selected types All 72 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Apul OG, Delgado AG, Kidd J, Alam F, Dahlen P, Westerhoff P. Carbonaceous nano-additives augment microwave-enabled thermal remediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):997-1002. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Apul OG, Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein N, Schoepf J, Ladner D, Hristovski KD, Westerhoff P. Superfine powdered activated carbon incorporated into electrospun polystyrene fibers preserve adsorption capacity. Science of the Total Environment 2017;592:458-464. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Azoz S, Gilbertson LM, Hashmi SM, Han P, Sterbinsky GE, Kanaan SA, Zimmerman JB, Pfefferle LD. Enhanced dispersion and electronic performance of single-walled carbon nanotube thin films without surfactant: a comprehensive study of various treatment processes. Carbon 2015;93:1008-1020. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Westerhoff P. Adsorption of III/V ions (In(III), Ga(III) and As(V)) onto SiO2, CeO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles used in the semiconductor industry. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):1014-1026. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Ma H, Westerhoff P. Dry Powder Assay Rapidly Detects Metallic Nanoparticles in Water by Measuring Surface Catalytic Reactivity. Environmental Science Technology 2018: 52 (22);13289–13297 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Zaikova T, Schoepf J, Herckes P, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P. The efficacy and environmental implications of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles in a commercial floor coating. Environmental Science:Nano 2017;4(10):2030-2042. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Westerband EI, Alum A, Brown FC, Abbaszadegan M, Hristovski KD, Hicks AL, Westerhoff PK. Antimicrobial Efficacy and Life Cycle Impact of Silver-Containing Food Containers. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018:6(10):13086-95. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Han B, Zimmerman S, Perreault F, Sinha S, Westerhoff P. Four release tests exhibit variable silver stability from nanoparticle-modified reverse osmosis membranes. Water Research 2018:143;77-86 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Westerhoff P. High-throughput analysis of photocatalytic reactivity of differing TiO2 formulations using 96-well microplate reactors. Chemosphere2019;223:275-84. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bisesi Jr. JH, Merten J, Liu K, Parks AN, Afrooz AR, Glenn JB, Klaine SJ, Kane AS, Saleh NB, Ferguson PL, Sabo-Attwood T. Tracking and quantification of single-walled carbon nanotubes in fish using near infrared fluorescence. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(3):1973-1983. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Brown FC, Bi Y, Chopra SS, Hristovski KD, Westerhoff P, Theis TL. End-of-Life Heavy Metal Releases from Photovoltaic Panels and Quantum Dot Films: Hazardous Waste Concerns or Not?. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering<.em>2018;6(7):9369-74. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Chen S, Yuan Z, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Zhao H, Ni J. Coagulation behaviors of new covalently bound hybrid coagulants (CBHyC) in surface water treatment. Separation and Purification Technology 2018;192:322-8. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Chopra SS, Theis TL. Comparative cradle-to-gate energy assessment of indium phosphide and cadmium selenide quantum dot displays. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):244-254. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Corredor C, Borysiak MD, Wolfer J, Westerhoff P, Posner JD. Colorimetric detection of catalytic reactivity of nanoparticles in complex matrices. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(6):3611-3618. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Deng Y, Petersen EJ, Challis KE, Rabb SA, Holbrook RD, Ranville JF, Nelson BC, Xing B. Multiple method analysis of TiO2 nanoparticle uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants. Environmental Science & Technology2017;51(18):10615-23. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Doudrick K, Nosaka T, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Quantification of graphene and graphene oxide in complex organic matrices. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(1):60-67. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Falinski MM, Plata DL, Chopra SS, Theis TL, Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB. A framework for sustainable nanomaterial selection and design based on performance, hazard, and economic considerations. Nature nanotechnology2018;13(8):708. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Westerhoff P, Capco DG. Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts 
intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation. Cell Biology and
 Toxicology 2014;30(3):169-188. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Capco DG, Westerhoff P. A facile method for separating and enriching nano and submicron particles from titanium dioxide found in food and pharmaceutical products. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0164712 (15 pp.). RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gifford M, Chester M, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Reducing environmental impacts of metal (hydr) oxide nanoparticle embedded anion exchange resins using anticipatory life cycle assessment. Environmental Science-Nano 2016;3(6):1351-60. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Gifford M, Chester M, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Human health tradeoffs in wellhead drinking water treatment: Comparing exposure reduction to embedded life cycle risks. Water Research2018;128:246-54. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Busnaina AA, Isaacs JA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Life cycle impacts and benefits of a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(19):11360-11368. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB, Plata DL, Hutchison JE, Anastas PT. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews 2015;44(16):5758-5777. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Wender BA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Coordinating modeling and experimental research of engineered nanomaterials to improve life cycle assessment studies. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(6):669-682. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Albalghiti EM, Fishman ZS, Perrault F, Corredor C, Posner JD, Elimelech M, Pfefferle LD, Zimmerman JB. Shape-dependent surface reactivity and antimicrobial activity of nano-cupric oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3975-3984. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Melnikov F, Wehmas LC, Anastas PT, Tanguay RL, Zimmerman JB. Toward safer multi-walled carbon nanotube design: establishing a statistical model that relates surface charge and embryonic zebrafish mortality. Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):10-19. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Gilbertson LM, Yamani JS, Theis TL, Zimmerman JB. Life cycle payback estimates of nanosilver enabled textiles under different silver loading, release, and laundering scenarios informed by literature review. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(13):7529-7542. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Reed RB, Theis TL, Hanigan D, Huling H, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, MIller J. Environmental impacts of reusable nanoscale silver-coated hospital gowns compared to single-use, disposable gowns. Environmental Science: Nano 2016;3(5):1124-1132. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Theis TL. A comparative life cycle assessment of commercially available household silver-enabled polyester textiles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2017;22(2):256-265. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hinrichs MM, Seager TP, Tracy SJ, Hannah MA. Innovation in the Knowledge Age:implications for collaborative science. Environment Systems and Decisions 2017;37(2):144-155. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hochella MF, Mogk DW, Ranville J, Allen IC, Luther GW, Marr LC, McGrail BP, Murayama M, Qafoku NP, Rosso KM, Sahai N. Natural, incidental, and engineered nanomaterials and their impacts on the Earth system. Science2019;363(6434):eaau8299. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hutchison JE. The road to sustainable nanotechnology: Challenges, progress and opportunities. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering2016;4(11):5907-5914 RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Wang J, Ranville JF, Fairbrother DH. Photodegradation of polymer-CNT nanocomposites: effect of CNT loading and CNT release characteristics. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):967-982.. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Challis KE, Bi Y, Hanigan D, Reed RB, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P, Ranville J, Fairbrother H, Gilbertson LM. Methodology for quantifying engineered nanomaterial release from diverse product matrices under outdoor weathering conditions and implications for life cycle assessment. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(9):1784-1797. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Challis K, Pourzahedi L, Durkin DP, Bi Y, Wang Y, Garland MA, Brown F, Hristovski K, Tanguay RL, Westerhoff P. Copper release and transformation following natural weathering of nano-enabled pressure-treated lumber. Science of the Total Environment 2019;668:234-44. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Li M, Liu J, Zhou Q, Gifford M, Westerhoff P. Effects of pH, soluble organic materials, and hydraulic loading rates on orthophosphate recovery from organic wastes using ion exchange. Journal of cleaner production 2019;217:127-33. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Linkov I, Trump BD, Wender BA, Seager TP, Kennedy AJ, Keisler JM. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods. Nature nanotechnology 2017;12(8):740. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Marks R, Yang T, Westerhoff P, Doudrick K. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide. Water Research 2016;104:11-19. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano MD, Olesik JW, Barber AG, Challis KE, Ranville JF, Single Particle ICP-MS:Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2016;408(19):5053-5074. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano M, Majestic BJ, Jamting AK, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Methods for the detection and characterization of silica colloids by microsecond spICP-MS. Analytical Chemistry 2016;88(9):4733-4741. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Mulchandani A, Westerhoff P. Recovery opportunities for metals and energy from sewage sludges. Bioresource Technology 2016;215:215-226. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article O’Connor MP, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT, Plata DL. Strategy for material supply chain sustainability: enabling a circular economy in the electronics industry through green engineering. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2016;4(11):5879-5888. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Petersen EJ, Flores-Cervantes DX, Bucheli TD, Elliott LC, Fagan JA, Gogos A, Hanna S, Kagi R, Mansfield E, Bustos AR, Plata DL, Reipa V, Westerhoff P, Winchester MR. Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices:current capabilities, case studies, and future prospects. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(9):4587-4605. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Pourzahedi L, Pandorf M, Ravikumar D, Zimmerman JB, Seager TP, Theis TL, Westerhoff P, Gilbertson LM, Lowry GV. Life cycle considerations of nano-enabled agrochemicals: are today's tools up to the task?. Environmental Science: Nano. 2018;5(5):1057-69. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Ravikumar D, Seager TP, Cucurachi S, Prado V, Mutel C. Novel Method of Sensitivity Analysis Improves the Prioritization of Research in Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment of Emerging Technologies. Environmental science & technology 2018;52(11):6534-43. RD835580 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Faust JJ, Yang Y, Doudrick K, Capco DG, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Characterization of nanomaterials in metal colloid-containing dietary supplement drinks and assessment of their potential interactions after ingestion. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2014;2(7):1616-1624. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Zaikova T, Barber A, Simonich M, Lankone R, Marco M, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Passantino L, Fairbrother DH, Tanguay R, Ranville JF, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff PK. Potential environmental impacts and antimicrobial efficacy of silver-and nanosilver-containing textiles. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):4018-4026. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Martin DP, Bednar AJ, Montano MD, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Multi-day diurnal measurements of Ti-containing nanoparticle and organic sunscreen chemical release during recreational use of a natural surface water Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):69-77. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Rodrigues SM, Demokritou P, Dokoozlian N, Hendren CO, Karn B, Mauter MS, Sadik OA, Safarpour M, Unrine JM, Viers J, Welle P, White JC, Wiesner MR, Lowry GV. Nanotechnology for sustainable food production: promising opportunities and scientific challenges. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):767-781. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Seager TP, Trump BD, Poinsatte-Jones K, Linkov I. Why life cycle assessment does not work for synthetic biology. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(11):5861-5862. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Shi W, Xue K, Meshot ER, Plata DL. The carbon nanotube formation parameter space: data mining and mechanistic understanding for efficient resource use. Green Chemistry 2017;19(16):3787-3800. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Speed D, Westerhoff P, Sierra-Alvarez R, Draper R, Pantano P, Aravamudhan S, Chen KL, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Bi X, Yang Y, Zeng C, Otero-Gonzalez L, Mikoryak C, Wilson BA, Kosaraju K, Tarannum M, Crawford S, Yi P, Liu X, Babu SV, Moinpour M, Ranville J, Montano M, Corredor C, Posner J, Shadman F. Physical, chemical, and in vitro toxicological characterization of nanoparticles in chemical mechanical planarization suspensions used in the semiconductor industry: towards environmental health and safety assessments.Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(3):227-244. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tiede K, Hanssen SF, Westerhoff P, Fern GJ, Hankin SM, Aitken RJ, Chaudhry Q, Boxall ABA. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):102-110. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Von Reitzenstein NH, Bi X, Yang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Morphology, structure, and properties of metal oxide/polymer nanocomposite electrospun mats. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2016;133(33):43811. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff P, Lee S, Yang Y, Gordon GW, Hristovski K, Halden RU, Herckes P. Characterization, recovery opportunities, and valuation of metals in municipal sludges from U.S. wastewater treatment plants nationwide. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(16):9479-9488. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Wang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Simultaneous removal of nanosilver and fullerene in sequencing batch reactors for biological wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 2015;125:115-121. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Yu Z, Nosaka T, Doudrick K, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Interaction of carbonaceous nanomaterials with wastewater biomass. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2015;9(5):823-831. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Faust JJ, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Capco DG, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Survey of food-grade silica dioxide nanomaterial occurrence, characterization, human gut impacts and fate across its lifecycle. The Science of the Total Environment 2016;565:902-912. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Reed R, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Prospecting nanomaterials in aqueous environments by cloud-point extraction coupled with transmission electron microscopy. The Science of the Total Environment 2017;584-585:515-522. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Zhao H, Wang L, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Ni J. Novel ion-exchange coagulants remove more low molecular weight organics than traditional coagulants. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3897-3904. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff, P.; Atkinson, A.; Fortner, J.; Wong, M. S.; Zimmerman, J.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.; Ranville, J.; Herckes, P. Low Risk Posed by Engineered and Incidental Nanoparticles in Drinking Water. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2018, 13 (8), 661–669. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Rong, H.; Garg, S.; Westerhoff, P.; Waite, T. D. In Vitro Characterization of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by the Commercially Available MesosilverTM Dietary Supplement. Environ. Sci. Nano 2018, 5 (11), 2686–2698. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Nosaka, T.; Lankone, R. S.; Bi, Y.; Fairbrother, D. H.; Westerhoff, P.; Herckes, P. Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Composites †. 2018. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Shi, W.; Peng, Y.; Steiner, S. A.; Li, J.; Plata, D. L. Carbon Dioxide Promotes Dehydrogenation in the Equimolar C 2 H 2-CO 2 Reaction to Synthesize Carbon Nanotubes. Small 2018, 14 (11), 1703482. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Shi, W.; Plata, D. L. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes:Production and Applications for Environmental Sustainability. Green Chem. 2018, 20, 5237–5406. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Wender, B. A.; Prado, V.; Fantke, P.; Ravikumar, D.; Seager, T. P. Sensitivity-Based Research Prioritization through Stochastic Characterization Modeling. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 2018, 23 (2), 324–332. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Westerband, E. I.; Hicks, A. L. Nanosilver-Enabled Food Storage Container Tradeoffs:Environmental Impacts Versus Food Savings Benefit, Informed by Literature. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 2018, 14 (6), 769–776. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Schoepf, J. J.; Bi, Y.; Kidd, J.; Herckes, P.; Hristovski, K.; Westerhoff, P. Detection and Dissolution of Needle-like Hydroxyapatite Nanomaterials in Infant Formula. NanoImpact 2017, 5, 22–28. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article Venkatesan, A. K.; Rodríguez, B. T.; Marcotte, A. R.; Bi, X.; Schoepf, J.; Ranville, J. F.; Herckes, P.; Westerhoff, P. Using Single-Particle ICP-MS for Monitoring Metal-Containing Particles in Tap Water Environmental Science Environmental Science Using Single-Particle ICP-MS for Monitoring Metal-Containing Particles in Tap Water †. Environ. Sci. Water Res. Technol 2018, 4. RD835580 (2018)
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    Journal Article O’Connor, M. P.; Coulthard, R. M.; Plata, D. L. Electrochemical Deposition for the Separation and Recovery of Metals Using Carbon Nanotube-Enabled Filters. Environ. Sci. Water Res. Technol. 2018, 4 (1), 58–66. RD835580 (2018)
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    Supplemental Keywords:

    nanotechnology, exposure, risk, ecological effects, bioavailability, particulates, effluent, metals, aquatic, water, life cycle analysis, Bayesian, environmental chemistry, engineering, modeling, measurement methods, risk, hazard

    Relevant Websites:

    Arizona State University - LCnano Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2016 Progress Report
  • 2017 Progress Report