2017 Progress Report: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)

EPA Grant Number: RD835580
Title: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)
Investigators: Westerhoff, Paul , Fairbrother, D. Howard , Hutchison, James E. , Plata, Desirée L. , Theis, Thomas L.
Institution: Arizona State University - Main Campus , Carnegie Mellon University , Colorado School of Mines , Duke University , Oregon State University , Purdue University , The Johns Hopkins University , University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Oregon , Yale University
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: March 19, 2014 through March 18, 2018 (Extended to November 30, 2018)
Project Period Covered by this Report: December 1, 2016 through November 30,2017
Project Amount: $5,000,000
RFA: EPA/NSF Networks for Characterizing Chemical Life Cycle (NCCLCs) (2013) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Endocrine Disruptors , Safer Chemicals

Objective:

Because engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have transformative benefits to individuals and society, they are being incorporated into many products. However, tremendous uncertainty presently exists in our ability to predict or manage risks from nano-enabled products across their life cycles. This project involves an interdisciplinary team of chemists, toxicologists, scientists, engineers, and social scientists to evaluate the trade-offs between intended function of NMs in products and risks to humans and the environment across their life cycle from creation, through use and disposal.

We hypothesize that the desirable physicochemical properties that create unique NM functionality can also influence inherent hazards and potential exposure routes. LCnano’s overarching goal is to elucidate NM property-exposure and property-hazard relationships from a life cycle perspective and to provide predictive models for unintended implications of NMs that will improve design of safe nano-enabled products and processes. To inform risk managers, LCnano will employ high throughput functional assays to quantify material attributes that serve as proxies for short- and long-term risk (material exposure, hazard, reactivity, and distribution). To inform designers of nano-enabled products about balances between performance and risk, LCnano will evaluate nano-enabled products for facilitating direct and translational methods in the development of material property-exposure and property-hazard relationships for identifying and subsequently minimizing risk for a wide array of existing products, helping ensure sustainable design of future, transformative nano-enabled products.

Progress Summary:

Research work plans continued to be developed around four nano-enabled product lines. A few examples of work completed in each product line are highlighted below.

Product-line A, NMs used in industrial processing. NMs used in industrial processing have the highest potential for environmental release. With leveraged funding from the Semiconductor Research Corporation, extensive work was performed on chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) nanoparticles used in processing semiconductor chips. These NMs have low toxicity, but some (CeO2) can adsorb ions (e.g., arsenate) in wastestreams and affect the ion fate during wastewater treatment. This part of the research program is now complete.

Product Line B, NMs dispersed in products. Separately, the PI has conducted extensive experiments on nano-silver and other NM metals in over the counter health products. In addition to characterization, the PI considers the human digestive system as part of the life cycle of these products. The PI is finding little impact of recommended nano-silver doses on the function of the gut microbiome. Separately, the PI compared the toxicity and photo-activity of chemical vs NM sunblocks found in creams. Fifty percent of the sunblocks use NM forms, and they can be released into swimming water during use. Chemical sunblocks may bio-accumulate while NMs may product reactive oxygen species in surface waters during solar irradiation. We also examined the occurrence and characterization of nano hydroxy-apatite (HA) in infant formula in the USA, Australia, and Europe. In the USA and Australia, half of the dry infant formula contained nano-needle like HA, whereas it was not found within EU countries. Experiments suggest the nano-forms dissolve more rapidly in gastric fluid and may help infants take up needed calcium and phosphorous more effectively. The team is also investigating the life cycle environmental impacts of nanoparticle-based agriculture products including fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators. Challenges include: defining functional units, limited material flow data, limited human health effect data, and spatial/temporal variability. Experimental data on crop yield (lettuce) are supporting the LCA efforts.

Product Line C, NMs embedded in products & polymers. The network created 5 identical outdoor weathering stations across the USA (AZ, PA, OR, CO, and near the District of Columbia) where NMs embedded in polymers could be tested. Long term exposures (monthly data for 12-18 months) have been collected and published that relate NM release potential to variations in climate (temperature, solar intensity, rain/snow). Separately, the PI has recently presented work on the characterization and release potential during recycling and landfill disposal of quantum-dot enabled displays (tablets, televisions). In most cases, NMs embedded within polymer release very little (<5%) of the total NM load in the polymers.

Product Line D, NMs coated on surfaces. NMs on surfaces can be effective to manipulate light, heat, fire, pollutants, or disinfect bacteria. The team has compared different means of attaching NMs to textiles, glass, and plastics to understand how different designs can minimize release potential of NMs while maximizing the beneficial use of NMs (e.g., maximize efficacy of product). The team is currently conducting experiments and LCA of nanoparticle-based window coatings to reduce energy consumption. ITO coatings produced at University of Oregon and Arizona State University are being compared with commercial FTO coatings with respect to performance (i.e., optical properties, thermal properties, and durability) and cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts.

Cross-product line findings. The network has significantly advanced nano-analytics capable of measuring all types of nanoparticles (metallic, carbon based) in water, plastics, foods, and other matrices at environmentally relevant concentrations. This include advancing single particle ICP-MS, but also laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and portable XRD capabilities. The team developed and validated techniques to extract NMs from water (e.g., cloud point extraction), creams (solvent extraction), powders (centrifugation), plastics (HIF solvent mixtures), and biological tissues (enzymes) to enable their rapid and accurate characterization. The team also advanced the use of zebra fish embryo as part of high throughput testing of NMs.

The team has integrated both quantitative life cycle analysis as well as taking a life cycle perspective towards testing and future design of nano-enabled products. Collectively, the network has developed an emerging concept that maximizes the efficacy (intended design function of nanomaterials) while minimizing the environmental impact across its life cycle (from creation to end-of-life). These concepts are manifested through experimental data, modeling and publication of conceptual models in high impact journals.

The PI involved a team science and communications PhD student within the project to study and work with external assessors on the evolution of our network and team science. This was found to be extremely beneficial and among the impacts of our network is a greater understanding among modelers versus experimentalists on how the approach their research and how working together streamlines and aligns the type of data which should be collected to parameterize life cycle models.

We had several undergraduate, graduate and post-docs “graduate” after working on LCnano research, and we have had excellent continued collaboration and involvement of them in our network as “alumni”. This includes their participation in papers, conferences, monthly meetings, and even our annual meeting. We provide travel and some materials costs, but most importantly we provide analytical support for them. This allows LCnano to expand as a network and leverage funding and expertise.

We have designed and started prototyping a museum exhibit from LCnano that will become part of Nanoscale Informal Science Education (NISE) network. Our students and faculty have participated in a wide range of outreach events to K-12 and undergraduates.

Future Activities:

The majority of the project work (experimental and LCA modeling) will be complete by May 2018. Anticipated technical work includes: 1) agricultural product lines using nanomaterials to reduce nutrient use, 2) nanoparticle based film coatings on windows to reduce energy consumption (partnership with ARPA-E SHIELD), 3) nanosilver impregnated food storage containers, 4) weathering of wood-based and concrete materials, 5) distribution of outreach kits to the NISE Network of museum partners, 6) carbon nanotubes used as flame retardants,

Between June and November 2018, the research team will prepare, submit, and revise any outstanding manuscripts. We strive to submit final manuscripts prior to the project end date, but it is likely that some will be submitted or resubmitted after the contract end date. All LCnano team members commit to the project until all manuscripts have been submitted.


Journal Articles on this Report : 44 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 106 publications 45 publications in selected types All 45 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Apul OG, Delgado AG, Kidd J, Alam F, Dahlen P, Westerhoff P. Carbonaceous nano-additives augment microwave-enabled thermal remediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):997-1002. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Apul OG, Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein N, Schoepf J, Ladner D, Hristovski KD, Westerhoff P. Superfine powdered activated carbon incorporated into electrospun polystyrene fibers preserve adsorption capacity. Science of the Total Environment 2017;592:458-464. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Azoz S, Gilbertson LM, Hashmi SM, Han P, Sterbinsky GE, Kanaan SA, Zimmerman JB, Pfefferle LD. Enhanced dispersion and electronic performance of single-walled carbon nanotube thin films without surfactant: a comprehensive study of various treatment processes. Carbon 2015;93:1008-1020. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Westerhoff P. Adsorption of III/V ions (In(III), Ga(III) and As(V)) onto SiO2, CeO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles used in the semiconductor industry. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):1014-1026. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi Y, Zaikova T, Schoepf J, Herckes P, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P. The efficacy and environmental implications of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles in a commercial floor coating. Environmental Science:Nano 2017;4(10):2030-2042. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Bisesi Jr. JH, Merten J, Liu K, Parks AN, Afrooz AR, Glenn JB, Klaine SJ, Kane AS, Saleh NB, Ferguson PL, Sabo-Attwood T. Tracking and quantification of single-walled carbon nanotubes in fish using near infrared fluorescence. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(3):1973-1983. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chopra SS, Theis TL. Comparative cradle-to-gate energy assessment of indium phosphide and cadmium selenide quantum dot displays. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):244-254. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Corredor C, Borysiak MD, Wolfer J, Westerhoff P, Posner JD. Colorimetric detection of catalytic reactivity of nanoparticles in complex matrices. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(6):3611-3618. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Doudrick K, Nosaka T, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Quantification of graphene and graphene oxide in complex organic matrices. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(1):60-67. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Westerhoff P, Capco DG. Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts 
intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation. Cell Biology and
 Toxicology 2014;30(3):169-188. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Capco DG, Westerhoff P. A facile method for separating and enriching nano and submicron particles from titanium dioxide found in food and pharmaceutical products. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0164712 (15 pp.). RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Busnaina AA, Isaacs JA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Life cycle impacts and benefits of a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(19):11360-11368. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB, Plata DL, Hutchison JE, Anastas PT. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews 2015;44(16):5758-5777. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Wender BA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Coordinating modeling and experimental research of engineered nanomaterials to improve life cycle assessment studies. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(6):669-682. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Albalghiti EM, Fishman ZS, Perrault F, Corredor C, Posner JD, Elimelech M, Pfefferle LD, Zimmerman JB. Shape-dependent surface reactivity and antimicrobial activity of nano-cupric oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3975-3984. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Melnikov F, Wehmas LC, Anastas PT, Tanguay RL, Zimmerman JB. Toward safer multi-walled carbon nanotube design: establishing a statistical model that relates surface charge and embryonic zebrafish mortality. Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):10-19. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hanigan D, Truong L, Simonich M, Tanguay R, Westerhoff P. Zebrafish embryo toxicity of 15 chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated disinfection by-products. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2017;58:302-310. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Gilbertson LM, Yamani JS, Theis TL, Zimmerman JB. Life cycle payback estimates of nanosilver enabled textiles under different silver loading, release, and laundering scenarios informed by literature review. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(13):7529-7542. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Reed RB, Theis TL, Hanigan D, Huling H, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, MIller J. Environmental impacts of reusable nanoscale silver-coated hospital gowns compared to single-use, disposable gowns. Environmental Science: Nano 2016;3(5):1124-1132. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Theis TL. A comparative life cycle assessment of commercially available household silver-enabled polyester textiles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2017;22(2):256-265. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hinrichs MM, Seager TP, Tracy SJ, Hannah MA. Innovation in the Knowledge Age:implications for collaborative science. Environment Systems and Decisions 2017;37(2):144-155. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Wang J, Ranville JF, Fairbrother DH. Photodegradation of polymer-CNT nanocomposites: effect of CNT loading and CNT release characteristics. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):967-982.. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Lankone RS, Challis KE, Bi Y, Hanigan D, Reed RB, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff P, Ranville J, Fairbrother H, Gilbertson LM. Methodology for quantifying engineered nanomaterial release from diverse product matrices under outdoor weathering conditions and implications for life cycle assessment. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(9):1784-1797. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Marks R, Yang T, Westerhoff P, Doudrick K. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide. Water Research 2016;104:11-19. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano MD, Olesik JW, Barber AG, Challis KE, Ranville JF, Single Particle ICP-MS:Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2016;408(19):5053-5074. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano M, Majestic BJ, Jamting AK, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Methods for the detection and characterization of silica colloids by microsecond spICP-MS. Analytical Chemistry 2016;88(9):4733-4741. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Mulchandani A, Westerhoff P. Recovery opportunities for metals and energy from sewage sludges. Bioresource Technology 2016;215:215-226. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article O’Connor MP, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT, Plata DL. Strategy for material supply chain sustainability: enabling a circular economy in the electronics industry through green engineering. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2016;4(11):5879-5888. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Petersen EJ, Flores-Cervantes DX, Bucheli TD, Elliott LC, Fagan JA, Gogos A, Hanna S, Kagi R, Mansfield E, Bustos AR, Plata DL, Reipa V, Westerhoff P, Winchester MR. Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices:current capabilities, case studies, and future prospects. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(9):4587-4605. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Faust JJ, Yang Y, Doudrick K, Capco DG, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Characterization of nanomaterials in metal colloid-containing dietary supplement drinks and assessment of their potential interactions after ingestion. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2014;2(7):1616-1624. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Zaikova T, Barber A, Simonich M, Lankone R, Marco M, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Passantino L, Fairbrother DH, Tanguay R, Ranville JF, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff PK. Potential environmental impacts and antimicrobial efficacy of silver-and nanosilver-containing textiles. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):4018-4026. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Martin DP, Bednar AJ, Montano MD, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Multi-day diurnal measurements of Ti-containing nanoparticle and organic sunscreen chemical release during recreational use of a natural surface water Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):69-77. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Rodrigues SM, Demokritou P, Dokoozlian N, Hendren CO, Karn B, Mauter MS, Sadik OA, Safarpour M, Unrine JM, Viers J, Welle P, White JC, Wiesner MR, Lowry GV. Nanotechnology for sustainable food production: promising opportunities and scientific challenges. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(4):767-781. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Seager TP, Trump BD, Poinsatte-Jones K, Linkov I. Why life cycle assessment does not work for synthetic biology. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(11):5861-5862. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Shi W, Xue K, Meshot ER, Plata DL. The carbon nanotube formation parameter space: data mining and mechanistic understanding for efficient resource use. Green Chemistry 2017;19(16):3787-3800. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Speed D, Westerhoff P, Sierra-Alvarez R, Draper R, Pantano P, Aravamudhan S, Chen KL, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Bi X, Yang Y, Zeng C, Otero-Gonzalez L, Mikoryak C, Wilson BA, Kosaraju K, Tarannum M, Crawford S, Yi P, Liu X, Babu SV, Moinpour M, Ranville J, Montano M, Corredor C, Posner J, Shadman F. Physical, chemical, and in vitro toxicological characterization of nanoparticles in chemical mechanical planarization suspensions used in the semiconductor industry: towards environmental health and safety assessments.Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(3):227-244. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tiede K, Hanssen SF, Westerhoff P, Fern GJ, Hankin SM, Aitken RJ, Chaudhry Q, Boxall ABA. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):102-110. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Von Reitzenstein NH, Bi X, Yang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Morphology, structure, and properties of metal oxide/polymer nanocomposite electrospun mats. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2016;133(33):43811. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff P, Lee S, Yang Y, Gordon GW, Hristovski K, Halden RU, Herckes P. Characterization, recovery opportunities, and valuation of metals in municipal sludges from U.S. wastewater treatment plants nationwide. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(16):9479-9488. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Wang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Simultaneous removal of nanosilver and fullerene in sequencing batch reactors for biological wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 2015;125:115-121. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Yu Z, Nosaka T, Doudrick K, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Interaction of carbonaceous nanomaterials with wastewater biomass. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2015;9(5):823-831. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Faust JJ, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Capco DG, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Survey of food-grade silica dioxide nanomaterial occurrence, characterization, human gut impacts and fate across its lifecycle. The Science of the Total Environment 2016;565:902-912. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Reed R, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Prospecting nanomaterials in aqueous environments by cloud-point extraction coupled with transmission electron microscopy. The Science of the Total Environment 2017;584-585:515-522. RD835580 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Zhao H, Wang L, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Ni J. Novel ion-exchange coagulants remove more low molecular weight organics than traditional coagulants. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3897-3904. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    nanotechnology, exposure, risk, ecological effects, bioavailability, particulates, effluent, metals, aquatic, water, life cycle analysis, Bayesian, environmental chemistry, engineering, modeling, measurement methods, risk, hazard

    Relevant Websites:

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    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2016 Progress Report