2016 Progress Report: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)

EPA Grant Number: RD835580
Title: NCCLCs: Life Cycle of Nanomaterials (LCnano)
Investigators: Westerhoff, Paul , Fairbrother, D. Howard , Hutchison, James E. , Plata, Desirée L. , Theis, Thomas L.
Institution: Arizona State University - Main Campus , Carnegie Mellon University , Colorado School of Mines , Duke University , Oregon State University , Purdue University , The Johns Hopkins University , University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Oregon , Yale University
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: March 19, 2014 through March 18, 2018 (Extended to November 30, 2018)
Project Period Covered by this Report: December 1, 2015 through November 30,2016
Project Amount: $5,000,000
RFA: EPA/NSF Networks for Characterizing Chemical Life Cycle (NCCLCs) (2013) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Endocrine Disruptors , Safer Chemicals

Objective:

Because engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have transformative benefits to individuals and society, they are being incorporated into many products. However, tremendous uncertainty presently exists in our ability to predict or manage risks from nano-enabled products across their life cycles. This project involves an interdisciplinary team of chemists, toxicologists, scientists, engineers, and social scientists to evaluate the trade-offs between intended function of NMs in products and risks to humans and the environment across their life cycle from creation, through use and disposal.

We hypothesize that the desirable physicochemical properties that create unique NM functionality can also influence inherent hazards and potential exposure routes. LCnano’s overarching goal is to elucidate NM property-exposure and property-hazard relationships from a life cycle perspective and to provide predictive models for unintended implications of NMs that will improve design of safe nano-enabled products and processes. To inform risk managers, LCnano will employ high throughput functional assays to quantify material attributes that serve as proxies for short- and long-term risk (material exposure, hazard, reactivity, and distribution). To inform designers of nano-enabled products about balances between performance and risk, LCnano will evaluate nano-enabled products for facilitating direct and translational methods in the development of material property-exposure and property-hazard relationships for identifying and subsequently minimizing risk for a wide array of existing products, helping ensure sustainable design of future, transformative nano-enabled products.

Progress Summary:

This year made significant progress across all four product lines and multiple types of nanoparticles. Research activities were organized and structured around work plans with each university partner in the network contributing to part of the work plan. In year 3, work continued on the five work plans initiated in year 2: 1) Roof-top weathering, 2) nanomaterials in foods, 3) chemical-mechanical planarization nanoparticles (NPs) used for polishing, 4) nano-carbon coated & impregnated polymers, 5) quantum-dot based electronic displays. A unique feature of LCnano is the close coordination and integration of life cycle modeling with experiments designed to answer key LCA questions. Finally, throughout this year e formalized the message we want as an outcome from LCnano as: (1) Developing and understanding approaches for assessing efficacy of nano-enabled products against their potential environmental risks; and (2) Developing a network of scientists that understand how to ask and address challenging questions associated with emerging nanotechnology opportunities for society. We successfully deployed parallel “rooftop” weathering systems across the USA, and are now collaborating with other sites to expand the network. Stations are operational in Arizona, Maryland, Colorado, Pennsylvania and Oregon. Stations are located outside on roof-tops of buildings and include a real-time weather monitoring station, cinder block supports that hold “mason” jars with specially designed housings where nano-composites can be supported. The geographic diversity allows us to investigate effects of solar radiation, precipitation (rain/snow), temperature (desert to mountains) and somewhat interesting potentially even urban ozone. Samples (rinses) are sent to a single lab for analysis, and over time composite materials are removed and analyzed. We have two publications in progress describing the weathering platform and including year 1 of data.

Human exposure to engineered nanomaterials is direct and potentially at quite high concentrations, compared with other consumer exposures. Therefore, our work with foods continued and was complimented by a NSF project on “nanoprospecting.” Research related to silica and titanium dioxide nanomaterials in foods were published, and rapid screening techniques using LIBS and XRF were conducted and being prepared for publication. We also developed a cloud-point-extraction (CPE) methodology to detect these nanomaterials in foods, wastewater and surface waters and the paper was recently accepted for publication. Significant effort went into determining if engineered nanoparticles were present in infant formula, a potentially sensitive population. We worked with a NGO (Friends of the Earth) and were able to identify needle-like hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) in several powder infant formula, and in our recently accepted publication demonstrated that while these materials are stable in near neutral pH, they rapidly dissolve in even mildly acidic conditions that would be present in the stomach or gut. Research funding was leveraged by the SemiConductor Research Corporation and NSF GOALI programs to focus on CMP nanoparticles in the semi-conductor industry. As the industry moves towards III/V semi-conductors, we were able to develop surface complexation models between these ions (Ga, In, As) and commonly used CMP nanoparticles. This work also evaluated reactive oxygen specie (ROS) production using 4 different assays for the CMP nanoparticles alone, and after sorbing III/V ions to test a “Trojan horse” exposure scenario. This work was complimented by zebra fish embryo testing. Our Polymer working group were able to synthesize and characterize nano-silver and nano carbon materials (CNTs, GO, G) in polymers with varying wettability. These samples were used in roof-top tests, and also to develop new analytical methods to track CNTs. The new method uses trace metal elements (e.g., Y, Co) to detect CNT release into solution, and explain potential microbial toxicity. These methods were expanded to understand the release of CNTs into sewage systems, as may occur during manufacturing. Quantum dots are nanomaterials that are rapidly being used in phone, tablet and television displays. This year our LCA team drove analyses on how their use will impact energy consumption, and what types of exposures or nanoparticle releases can occur. This analysis has been submitted for publication, and used to design end-of-life needs for quantum dot based displays which are now under way to feed critical input into LCA models.

During our annual meeting in January 2015 our network developed new methodologies for assessing nanomaterial risks, and an ability to illustrate this against the potential efficacy or benefits of using nanomaterials over conventional chemicals. The primary approach was by developing “Ashby-Plots” that show a functional attribute of a material (e.g., antimicrobial behavior) that is desirable by product manufacturers against a potential environmental burden from LCA (e.g., embedded energy or CO2 emission potential). The initial example compares different ENMs (silver, carbon) capable of controlling microbial growth on textiles, against chemical alternatives (e.g., triclosan). This has been useful and is being developed across all the LCnano product lines. For example, we compare the benefits of protecting against skin cancer by using sunblocks, which contain either organic chemical blocking agents (e.g., oxy-benzone) or engineered nanoparticles (e.g., TiO2, ZnO).

As initially proposed, we also are developing “radar plots” using “functional assays” to compare relative hazards, material characterization, fate, and reactivity of nanoparticles. The figure below is one example that is near ready for publication. This initial paper focuses on the reproducibility and statistical inter-dependence of functional assays. We developed, evaluated reproducibility and inter-correlation of 32 physical, chemical, and biological functional assays in water for eight different engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and discuss the interpretation of the results using risk-profiling radar plots. The functional assays were highly reproducible when run in triplicate (average CV = 6.6%). Each nanomaterial exhibited unique risk profiles, as compared using radar plots. Reactivity assays show potential for some ENMs to dissolve or aggregate. Surprisingly, MWCNTs exhibited movement in a magnetic field more than all other ENMs except for magnetite. We found high inter-correlations between cloud point extraction and distribution to sewage sludge (R2 = 0.99), dissolution at pH 8 and pH 4.7 (R2 = 0.98), and dissolution at pH 8 and Zebrafish mortality at 24 hpf (R2 = 0.94). Additionally, most ENMs show a high propensity to distribute out of water and into other phases (i.e. soil surfaces, surfactant micelles, sewage sludge). The risk-profiling radar plots permit estimations of likely ENM disposition in the environment. We successfully had multiple PhD student and post-doc lab exchanges (n~10). These were designed for 1-2 week of intensive cross-university research. This has helped our team come together and understand each others resources and research approaches. This will continue in 2017 and lead to several joint network publications. We have monthly teleconference calls as a network, one annual meeting, and had excellent attendance at the Sustainable Nanotech Organization conference (chaired by Lowry and Hutchinson) in 2015. We had several undergraduate, graduate and post-docs “graduate” after working on LCnano research, and we have had excellent continued collaboration and involvement of them in our network as “alumni”. This includes there participation in papers, conferences, monthly meetings and even our annual meeting. We provide travel and some materials costs, but most importantly we provide analytical support for them. This allows LCnano to expand as a network and leverage funding and expertise. One alumni (Prof. Gilbertson/UPITT) will give a presentation at ASU, and another from OSU will give a seminar at a SRC webinar and are examples of continued involvement. We have designed and started prototyping a museum exhibit from LCnano that will become part of Nanoscale Informal Science Education (NISE) network. Our students and faculty have participated in a wide range of outreach events to K-12 and undergraduates.

Future Activities:

As we move into the final year of the grant our annual meeting focused on two themes: 1) key work for the final year, and 2) how the network can continue beyond the life of LCnano. We initiated four new work plans for this year: 1) Agricultural product lines using nanomaterials to reduce nutrient use, 2) nanoparticle based film coatings on windows to reduce energy consumption (partnership with ARPA-E SHIELD), 3) nanosilver impregnated food storage containers, and 4) multi-geographic urban recreational use surface water sampling and detection of engineered nanoparticles.


Journal Articles on this Report : 35 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 106 publications 45 publications in selected types All 45 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Apul OG, Delgado AG, Kidd J, Alam F, Dahlen P, Westerhoff P. Carbonaceous nano-additives augment microwave-enabled thermal remediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):997-1002. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Azoz S, Gilbertson LM, Hashmi SM, Han P, Sterbinsky GE, Kanaan SA, Zimmerman JB, Pfefferle LD. Enhanced dispersion and electronic performance of single-walled carbon nanotube thin films without surfactant: a comprehensive study of various treatment processes. Carbon 2015;93:1008-1020. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bi X, Westerhoff P. Adsorption of III/V ions (In(III), Ga(III) and As(V)) onto SiO2, CeO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles used in the semiconductor industry. Environmental Science:Nano 2016;3(5):1014-1026. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Bisesi Jr. JH, Merten J, Liu K, Parks AN, Afrooz AR, Glenn JB, Klaine SJ, Kane AS, Saleh NB, Ferguson PL, Sabo-Attwood T. Tracking and quantification of single-walled carbon nanotubes in fish using near infrared fluorescence. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(3):1973-1983. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chopra SS, Theis TL. Comparative cradle-to-gate energy assessment of indium phosphide and cadmium selenide quantum dot displays. Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):244-254. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Corredor C, Borysiak MD, Wolfer J, Westerhoff P, Posner JD. Colorimetric detection of catalytic reactivity of nanoparticles in complex matrices. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(6):3611-3618. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Doudrick K, Nosaka T, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Quantification of graphene and graphene oxide in complex organic matrices. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(1):60-67. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Westerhoff P, Capco DG. Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts 
intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation. Cell Biology and
 Toxicology 2014;30(3):169-188. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Faust JJ, Doudrick K, Yang Y, Capco DG, Westerhoff P. A facile method for separating and enriching nano and submicron particles from titanium dioxide found in food and pharmaceutical products. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0164712 (15 pp.). RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Busnaina AA, Isaacs JA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Life cycle impacts and benefits of a carbon nanotube-enabled chemical gas sensor. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(19):11360-11368. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Zimmerman JB, Plata DL, Hutchison JE, Anastas PT. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews 2015;44(16):5758-5777. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Wender BA, Zimmerman JB, Eckelman MJ. Coordinating modeling and experimental research of engineered nanomaterials to improve life cycle assessment studies. Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(6):669-682. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Albalghiti EM, Fishman ZS, Perrault F, Corredor C, Posner JD, Elimelech M, Pfefferle LD, Zimmerman JB. Shape-dependent surface reactivity and antimicrobial activity of nano-cupric oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3975-3984. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gilbertson LM, Melnikov F, Wehmas LC, Anastas PT, Tanguay RL, Zimmerman JB. Toward safer multi-walled carbon nanotube design: establishing a statistical model that relates surface charge and embryonic zebrafish mortality. Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):10-19. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Gilbertson LM, Yamani JS, Theis TL, Zimmerman JB. Life cycle payback estimates of nanosilver enabled textiles under different silver loading, release, and laundering scenarios informed by literature review. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(13):7529-7542. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Reed RB, Theis TL, Hanigan D, Huling H, Zaikova T, Hutchison JE, MIller J. Environmental impacts of reusable nanoscale silver-coated hospital gowns compared to single-use, disposable gowns. Environmental Science: Nano 2016;3(5):1124-1132. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hicks AL, Theis TL. A comparative life cycle assessment of commercially available household silver-enabled polyester textiles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2017;22(2):256-265. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hinrichs MM, Seager TP, Tracy SJ, Hannah MA. Innovation in the Knowledge Age:implications for collaborative science. Environment Systems and Decisions 2017;37(2):144-155. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Marks R, Yang T, Westerhoff P, Doudrick K. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide. Water Research 2016;104:11-19. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano MD, Olesik JW, Barber AG, Challis KE, Ranville JF, Single Particle ICP-MS:Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2016;408(19):5053-5074. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Montano M, Majestic BJ, Jamting AK, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Methods for the detection and characterization of silica colloids by microsecond spICP-MS. Analytical Chemistry 2016;88(9):4733-4741. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Mulchandani A, Westerhoff P. Recovery opportunities for metals and energy from sewage sludges. Bioresource Technology 2016;215:215-226. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article O’Connor MP, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT, Plata DL. Strategy for material supply chain sustainability: enabling a circular economy in the electronics industry through green engineering. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2016;4(11):5879-5888. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Petersen EJ, Flores-Cervantes DX, Bucheli TD, Elliott LC, Fagan JA, Gogos A, Hanna S, Kagi R, Mansfield E, Bustos AR, Plata DL, Reipa V, Westerhoff P, Winchester MR. Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices:current capabilities, case studies, and future prospects. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(9):4587-4605. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Faust JJ, Yang Y, Doudrick K, Capco DG, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Characterization of nanomaterials in metal colloid-containing dietary supplement drinks and assessment of their potential interactions after ingestion. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2014;2(7):1616-1624. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Zaikova T, Barber A, Simonich M, Lankone R, Marco M, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Passantino L, Fairbrother DH, Tanguay R, Ranville JF, Hutchison JE, Westerhoff PK. Potential environmental impacts and antimicrobial efficacy of silver-and nanosilver-containing textiles. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):4018-4026. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Reed RB, Martin DP, Bednar AJ, Montano MD, Westerhoff P, Ranville JF. Multi-day diurnal measurements of Ti-containing nanoparticle and organic sunscreen chemical release during recreational use of a natural surface water Environmental Science: Nano 2017;4(1):69-77. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Speed D, Westerhoff P, Sierra-Alvarez R, Draper R, Pantano P, Aravamudhan S, Chen KL, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Bi X, Yang Y, Zeng C, Otero-Gonzalez L, Mikoryak C, Wilson BA, Kosaraju K, Tarannum M, Crawford S, Yi P, Liu X, Babu SV, Moinpour M, Ranville J, Montano M, Corredor C, Posner J, Shadman F. Physical, chemical, and in vitro toxicological characterization of nanoparticles in chemical mechanical planarization suspensions used in the semiconductor industry: towards environmental health and safety assessments.Environmental Science: Nano 2015;2(3):227-244. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tiede K, Hanssen SF, Westerhoff P, Fern GJ, Hankin SM, Aitken RJ, Chaudhry Q, Boxall ABA. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology 2016;10(1):102-110. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Von Reitzenstein NH, Bi X, Yang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Morphology, structure, and properties of metal oxide/polymer nanocomposite electrospun mats. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2016;133(33):43811. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Westerhoff P, Lee S, Yang Y, Gordon GW, Hristovski K, Halden RU, Herckes P. Characterization, recovery opportunities, and valuation of metals in municipal sludges from U.S. wastewater treatment plants nationwide. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(16):9479-9488. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Wang Y, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P. Simultaneous removal of nanosilver and fullerene in sequencing batch reactors for biological wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 2015;125:115-121. RD835580 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Yu Z, Nosaka T, Doudrick K, Hristovski K, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Interaction of carbonaceous nanomaterials with wastewater biomass. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2015;9(5):823-831. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yang Y, Faust JJ, Schoepf J, Hristovski K, Capco DG, Herckes P, Westerhoff P. Survey of food-grade silica dioxide nanomaterial occurrence, characterization, human gut impacts and fate across its lifecycle. The Science of the Total Environment 2016;565:902-912. RD835580 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Zhao H, Wang L, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P, Ni J. Novel ion-exchange coagulants remove more low molecular weight organics than traditional coagulants. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3897-3904. RD835580 (2016)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    nanotechnology, exposure, risk, ecological effects, bioavailability, particulates, effluent, metals, aquatic, water, life cycle analysis, Bayesian, environmental chemistry, engineering, modeling, measurement methods, risk, hazard

    Relevant Websites:

    ASU Engineering NANO Page Exit Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2017 Progress Report