2016 Progress Report: Impacts of Household Sources on Outdoor Pollution at Village and Regional Scales in India

EPA Grant Number: R835425
Title: Impacts of Household Sources on Outdoor Pollution at Village and Regional Scales in India
Investigators: Smith, Kirk R. , Arora, Narendra , Bond, Tami C. , Edwards, Rufus D. , Seinfeld, John
Institution: University of California - Berkeley , California Institute of Technology , The INCLEN trust , University of California - Irvine
EPA Project Officer: Keating, Terry
Project Period: April 1, 2014 through March 31, 2017 (Extended to March 31, 2019)
Project Period Covered by this Report: April 1, 2016 through March 31,2017
Project Amount: $1,495,454
RFA: Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating, and Lighting (2012) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Global Climate Change , Tribal Environmental Health Research , Climate Change , Air


This research will quantify the contribution of households to ambient air pollution in North India by (1) updating and improving existing emissions inventories through activity-based modeling at high temporal and spatial resolution; (2) providing field-based emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and other ozone precursors to, for the first time, model the contribution of household air pollution to regional secondary particle formation; and (3) monitoring rural ambient and near-home concentrations of and personal exposures to PM2.5. Modeling efforts will enable manipulation of various sources and emission rates, across a variety of relevant policy scenarios, enabling estimation of how certain initiatives may impact air pollution at varying scales.
This project leverages a multi-year collaboration between University of California Berkeley and INCLEN, the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (New Delhi, India). INCLEN runs a large demographic and environmental surveillance site ~75 kilometers south of Delhi; their activities span over 50 villages covering approximately 200,000 individuals. While relatively close to Delhi, most households in the area rely on brushwood and dung as primary household fuels. The entire region is prone to low, ground-level inversions in the winter, resulting in especially high PM concentrations between November and February. Study findings will be disseminated to community members, policy makers and members of relevant ministries, environmental health practitioners, and other researchers through journal articles.

Progress Summary:

We continue to make significant progress, with a shift from field-based activities to data analysis, interpretation, and preparation for atmospheric modeling. In April 2017, all field measurements, including emissions measurements, stove use monitoring, vertical soundings, and ambient air quality monitoring,– were completed.
University of Illinois coinvestigators have refined emissions inventories, providing more in-depth, spatially and temporally resolved task-based inventories for use as inputs into models being run by John Seinfeld’s group at Cal Tech. Initial runs of the model have been set up using simplified parameters as considerable work is still required to format the emission inventories to optimize their use in CMAQ.
In-depth infield emissions characterization and subsequent chemical analyses (University of California, Irvine) have led to the publication of two manuscripts on emissions and emissions-related parameters; a third manuscript is in preparation focusing on the molecular composition of organic particles from household cooking emissions from different stove and fuel combinations common to the area (brushwood in a traditional stove; cow dung in a traditional stove; and cow dung in a traditionally, secondary simmering stove). A number of parameters have been settled on for the atmospheric modeling, including focus and parent modeling domains, an initial emissions inventory, provided by colleagues in India; and an agreed-upon method for emissions and species.
The majority of the stove use monitoring data and ambient air pollution data has been cleaned. Analysis is ongoing.

Future Activities:

Major objectives include:
  • Statistical modeling of the impact of household stove use on ambient air quality, based on stove use monitoring data and ambient measurements
  • Running and refining atmospheric models of secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation, based on updated emissions inventories
  • Publication of (1) findings from emissions sampling; (2) a description of and findings from deployment of an UAV-based particle, temperature, and altitude sensing system; and (3) publication of rural ambient air pollution levels and personal exposures.

Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 5 publications 2 publications in selected types All 2 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Edwards R, Princevac M, Weltman R, Ghasemian M, Arora NK, Bond T. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking. Atmospheric Environment 2017;164:50-60. R835425 (2016)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text-HTML
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text-PDF
  • Journal Article Gautam S, Edwards R, Yadav A, Weltman R, Pillarsetti A, Arora NK, Smith KR. Probe-based measurements of moisture in dung fuel for emissions measurements. Energy for Sustainable Development 2016;35:1-6. R835425 (2016)
    R835036 (Final)
  • Full-text: Research Gate-Abstract & Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Cookstoves, emissions, ambient air pollution, air pollution, India

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
    2014 Progress Report
    2015 Progress Report