2017 Progress Report: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center

EPA Grant Number: R835441
Center: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center
Center Director: McConnell, Rob Scot
Title: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center
Investigators: McConnell, Rob Scot
Institution: University of Southern California
EPA Project Officer: Nolt-Helms, Cynthia
Project Period: July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2018 (Extended to June 30, 2019)
Project Period Covered by this Report: July 1, 2016 through June 30,2017
Project Amount: $4,146,875
RFA: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (with NIEHS) (2012) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health

Objective:

Project 1

Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major public health issues. A growing body of evidence indicates that environmental exposures during the in utero, early-life and later childhood periods contribute to obesity and its metabolic consequences. In the Southern California Children’s Health Study (CHS), obesity, growth trajectory of body mass index (BMI), and attained BMI at age 18 years were associated with traffic density and near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure during gestation and childhood, findings that were replicated for childhood exposures in a second independent cohort. Our preliminary data indicates that NRAP adversely affects body fat amount and distribution, systemic inflammation and pancreatic beta cell function. Recent experimental studies show that early-life air pollution exposures result in fat redistribution and contribute to systemic inflammatory responses and alterations of metabolic function including insulin resistance (IR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies in animal models have shown that early life PM inhalation increases visceral adipose tissue (VAT), a fat depot that is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk for later-life metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The effects of air pollution on fat redistribution are reflected in increased hepatic fat fraction (HFF), which could contribute to the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children. Taken together, these studies indicate that early-life traffic exposures have the potential to increase childhood obesity and contribute to fat redistribution, systemic inflammation, and metabolic changes associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, NAFLD and CVD.
Although studies support the hypotheses that exposures to air pollution during developmental periods play a role in the trajectory toward childhood obesity, adipose tissue redistribution, inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, little is known about the responsible mechanisms or the causal components of air pollution that could be targets for prevention. We aim to fill critical gaps in the scientific knowledge base by investigating the effects of elevated NRAP exposures during the in utero and childhood periods on clinically important obesity phenotypes, obesity-related inflammation and adipokines, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta-cell function and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at age 18 years. We have identified NRAP as the exposures of interest as traffic-related PM produce systemic oxidative stress and inflammation that may be responsible for adverse health effects.
Using newly assembled data, we will employ state-of-the-art spatiotemporal models to provide time-resolved (prenatal and childhood) EC2.5 and PM2.5 transition metals exposures to examine their effects during critical developmental periods on obesity among a subset of 4,560 southern
California-born CHS participants. This subset of subjects from the CHS has linked birth certificate data and extensive data on lifetime air pollution and tobacco smoke exposures, community contextual information, time-activity patterns, BMI trajectory, physical activity and health status. To investigate mechanism and mediation effects, we propose to examine adipose tissue distribution using advanced MRI imaging techniques, measures of inflammation, adipokines, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the prevalence of MetS and in a subsample of 200 overweight or obese CHS participants.

Project 2

Animal toxicological studies suggest that adipose tissue inflammation plays a critical role in mediating the effects of air pollution on insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and the metabolic risk that is associated with obesity. These relationships have not previously been studied in humans. In Project 2 we will investigate specific toxicologically relevant pro-inflammatory components of the near-roadway particulate matter (PM) mixture.

Project 3

The overall goals of Project 3 are to carry out comprehensive experiments in mice to determine the effect of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) on obesity and related metabolic traits. We will use a longitudinal study design and will focus on nanoscale particulate matter (nPM) as the pollutant of interest since these particles reflect the NRAP that is associated with obesity in the Children’s Health Study (CHS), as described in Project 1. Using the well-established C57BL/6 mouse model, we will induce obesity through combination of litter reduction at birth to promote over-nutrition during early life with high fat feeding at the time of weaning. Mice will be exposed to a novel near-roadway source of nPM (exposed group) or filtered air (control group) during prenatal, postnatal, or both pre and postnatal development and will be characterized for obesity-related metabolic, molecular, biochemical, and neurobiological phenotypes at 5 weeks of age (puberty period), 9 weeks of age (late adolescence), and 13 weeks of age (young adulthood). These proposed experiments are well-integrated with the overall focus of the Center and may provide causal information that could guide informed analyses in Projects 1 and 2, as analogous obesity-related parameters are collected in humans.

Progress Summary:

Project 1

traffic-related air pollutant on BMI trajectory and obesity in the CHS cohort. The exposure assessment has been completed from primary data including review of residential address histories, geocoding with state-of-the-art methods and updated models for exposure. A manuscript is in preparation showing traffic pollution is associated with later life BMI growth. We are finalizing estimates using innovative spatiotemporal models from NO2.
For aims 2 and 3, we have assembled the study team, developed study materials and questionnaires, obtained IRB approvals, designed and programmed study databases, tested our data collection protocols, defined our exposure based sampling frame and completed 101 study participants for study visits. We had a slower start than anticipated but are now meeting our new recruiting target numbers after revising the protocol, adding a study venue and increasing subject reimbursement. We anticipate meeting our targets in year 5.

The epidemiologic evidence is supported by experimental studies using animal models, which show particulate air pollutant increases visceral adiposity, adipose inflammation, systemic inflammation, metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerotic lesions.33-34 These data suggest that near roadway exposure to motor vehicle emissions are not only obesogenic, but increase the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of obesity. These obesogenic mobile source emissions are substantial in the Los Angeles region, and many of the 3 million children in Los
Angeles are highly exposed because they reside, play and go to school in close proximity to major roads. These children may be at increased lifetime risk for chronic diseases from chronically elevated exposures occurring during critical developmental periods including the in utero, early childhood (ages 0-5 years) and later childhood (ages 5-18 years) periods.

Project 2

On those subjects completed we have sorted cells in adipose tissue and blood for M1 and M2 macrophages and Treg and Teff cells, and we have recently conducted assays of adipocytokines in serum in order to evaluate the associations with assigned subject lifetime residential air pollution exposure. We will also use these data to recalculculate power and needed sample size to determine how many additional samples will be required. We have pilot tested assays for measuring adipocytokine in adipose tissue, but these measurements will be measured all at once when sample collection is completed. Results to date demonstrate broad distribution both of outcomes and lifetime exposure. We have observed in a preliminary analysis an association between ozone and decreased Treg cells in adipose tissue.


Strong, synergistic associations of two combustion sources (secondhand smoke and NRAP) with BMI in our paper, and the unambiguous temporal relationship, strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity.

Project 3

We continued to determine the effects of NRAP on obesity in mice and focused our studies during Year 3 on prenatal exposure. At the time of pregnancy, female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to either filtered air or 300μg/m3 nPM for 5 hours per day, 3 days per week, and exposure was discontinued after birth of the pups. At the time of weaning (4 weeks of age), male and female mice were put on a regular chow diet (n=30 males and n= 15 females) and maintained for 14 weeks. Similar to our lifelong exposure study, we carried out several non-invasive measurements including body weight and glucose metabolism. We observed that male and female mice exposed to nPM in utero exhibited differences in the body weight gains after weaning and out to 14 weeks of age in females but not males. The increase in body weight in females was mostly attributable to increased fat mass, particularly at 12 and 16 weeks of age. By comparison, nPM effects on body composition in males were no longer observed at 16 weeks of age. This was accompanied by both male and female nPM-exposed mice exhibiting impaired glucose clearance after being administered intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, with significantly higher area under the glucose tolerance curve (AUC) than control-exposed mice. We are now in the process of characterizing adipose tissue with respect to gene expression and immune cell composition to determine whether changes in these phenotypes could explain the mechanism for the observed whole body physiological differences. In summary, mice fed a chow fat with exposure to nPM in utero exhibit accumulation of adipose tissue, possibly through increased food intake, and decreased glucose clearance that is likely the result of increased insulin resistance at the level of adipose tissue. However, we do not believe these metabolic abnormalities are due to differences in the inflammatory profile of adipose. The results of these studies will also be of direct relevance to those collected in humans as part of Projects 1 and 2.

In summary, mice fed a chow fat with exposure to nPM exhibit accumulation of adipose tissue, possibly through increased food intake, and decreased glucose clearance that is likely the result of increased insulin resistance at the level of adipose tissue. However, we do not believe these metabolic abnormalities are due to differences in the inflammatory profile of adipose. The results of these studies will also be of direct relevance to those collected in humans as part of Projects 1 and 2.

Future Activities:

Project 1

We will continue to investigate the longitudinal effects of prenatal, early and later childhood exposure traffic-related air pollutant on BMI trajectory and obesity in the CHS cohort. The exposure assessment is now completed. Analyses are being conducted to understand the longitudinal effects of prenatal, early and later childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollutant on BMI trajectory and obesity in the CHS cohort. We are preparing a manuscript to report findings.

Project 2

The coming year will be focused on the ongoing analysis of interim results, successfully recruiting enough subjects needed to power effect estimates from these analyses, conducting all remaining assays on the final data set and completing analyses and manuscripts.

Project 3

Our plans during the final year of Project 3 will be to carry out the remaining studies focused on post-natal exposure. Based on the exposure studies thus far and feedback from the external advisory committee, we will focus mostly on the chow diet since nPM reproducibly affected metabolic homeostasis under these conditions. However, we will still consider a high fat-fed group of mice as well, possibly by using a diet that has lower fat content. In combination with the results from the already completed whole life and prenatal exposure studies, we expect to obtain additional insight into the critical windows of susceptibility during development that are important for exposure to NRAP.

Community Outreach and Translation Core (COTC)

The COTC will continue to respond to invitations to speak at community meetings and conferences, and technical assistance requests. We are actively developing relationships with urban planners to engage in dialogue about the role of air pollution in land-use decision making and anticipate developing a report targeting planners by the end of 2017. Further, we are planning a commentary paper about the public health balance between the benefits of outdoor physical activity and risks associated with increasing ventilation in a polluted environment. The Core will also plan further events to be involved in the follow-up from the County Parks needs assessment and sharing research about potential risks from playing in parks affected by near roadway air pollution.

References:


Journal Articles: 59 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 62 publications 59 publications in selected types All 59 journal articles
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Journal Article Alderete TL, Autran C, Brekke BE, Knight R, Bode L, Goran MI, Fields DA. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015;102(6):1381-1388. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Habre R, Toledo-Corral CM, Berhane K, Chen Z, Lurmann FW, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution with insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and adiposity in Los Angeles Latino children. Diabetes 2017;66(7):1789-1796. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Jones RB, Chen Z, Kim JS, Habre R, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD, Goran MI. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese adolescents. Environmental Research 2018;161:472-478. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Song AY, Bastain T, Habre R, Toledo-Corral CM, Salam MT, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD, Breton CV. Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposures, cord blood adipokines and infant weight. Pediatric Obesity 2018:13(6):348-356. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Allayee H, Hazen SL. Contribution of gut bacteria to lipid levels: another metabolic role for microbes? Circulation Research 2015;117(9):750-754. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Berger PK, Fields DA, Demerath EW, Fujiwara H, Goran MI. High-fructose corn-syrup-sweetened beverage intake increases 5-hour breast milk fructose concentrations in lactating women. Nutrients 2018;10(6):669 (9 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bouret S, Levin BE, Ozanne SE. Gene-environment interactions controlling energy and glucose homeostasis and the developmental origins of obesity. Physiological Reviews 2015;95(1):47-82. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Mack WJ, Yao J, Berhane K, Amadeus M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, McConnell R, Hodis HN, Kunzli N, Avol E. Prenatal air pollution exposure and early cardiovascular phenotypes in young adults. PLoS One 2016;11(3):e0150825 (12 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chen Z, Salam MT, Toledo-Corral C, Watanabe RM, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA, Habre R, Bastain TM, Lurmann F, Wilson JP, Trigo E, Gilliland FD. Ambient air pollutants have adverse effects on insulin and glucose homeostasis in Mexican Americans. Diabetes Care 2016;39(4):547-554. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chen Z, Salam MT, Alderete TL, Habre R, Bastain TM, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Effects of childhood asthma on the development of obesity among school-aged children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2017;195(9):1181-1188. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Cheng H, Davis DA, Hasheminassab S, Sioutas C, Morgan TE, Finch CE. Urban traffic-derived nanoparticulate matter reduces neurite outgrowth via TNFα in vitro. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2016;13:19 (11 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Cho J, Goldenson NI, Pester MS, Khoddam R, Bello MS, Dunton GF, Belcher BR, Leventhal AM. Longitudinal associations between anhedonia and body mass index trajectory groups among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;63(1):81-87. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Cui X, Gong J, Han H, He L, Teng Y, Tetley T, Sinharay R, Chung KF, Islam T, Gilliland F, Grady S, Garshick E, Li Z, Zhang JJ. Relationship between free and total malondialdehyde, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, in various types of human biospecimens. Journal of Thoracic Disease 2018;10(5):3088-3097. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Dueker D, Taher M, Wilson J, McConnell R. Evaluating children's location using a personal GPS logging instrument: limitations and lessons learned. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2014;24(3):244-252. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Dunton GF, O'Connor SG, Belcher BR, Maher JP, Schembre SM. Objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time are differentially related to dietary fat and carbohydrate intake in children. Frontiers in Public Health 2018;6:198 (6 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Fruin S, Urman R, Lurmann F, McConnell R, Gauderman J, Rappaport E, Franklin M, Gilliland FD, Shafer M, Gorski P, Avol E. Spatial variation in particulate matter components over a large urban area. Atmospheric Environment 2014;83:211-219. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Ghazalpour A, Cespedes I, Bennett BJ, Allayee H. Expanding role of gut microbiota in lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2016;27(2):141-147. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Kunzli N, McConnell R. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential impact of a greenhouse gas reduction strategy in Southern California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(2):193-200. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ghosh R, Gauderman WJ, Minor H, Youn HA, Lurmann F, Cromar KR, Chatzi L, Belcher B, Fielding CR, McConnell R. Air pollution, weight loss and metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery: a potential model for study of metabolic effects of environmental exposures. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(5):312-320. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Goran MI, Martin AA, Alderete TL, Fujiwara H, Fields DA. Fructose in breast milk is positively associated with infant body composition at 6 months of age. Nutrients 2017;9(2)146 (11 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Habre R, Zhou H, Eckel SP, Enebish T, Fruin S, Bastain T, Rappaport E, Gilliland F. Short-term effects of airport-associated ultrafine particle exposure on lung function and inflammation in adults with asthma. Environment International 2018;118:48-59. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hasson RE, Hsu YJ, Davis JN, Goran MI, Spruijt-Metz D. The influence of parental education on dietary intake in Latino youth. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2018;20(1):250-254. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hsieh S, Klassen AC, Curriero FC, Caulfield LE, Cheskin LJ, Davis JN, Goran MI, Weigensberg MJ, Spruijt-Metz D. Built environment associations with adiposity parameters among overweight and obese Hispanic youth. Preventive Medicine Reports 2015;2:406-412. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hsieh S, Leaderer BP, Feldstein AE, Santoro N, McKay LA, Caprio S, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution associations with cytokeratin-18, a marker of hepatocellular apoptosis, in an overweight and obese paediatric population. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(6):342-347. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Hsu TM, Konanur VR, Taing L, Usui R, Kayser BD, Goran MI, Kanoski SE. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats. Hippocampus 2015;25(2):227-239. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Künzli N, Avol E, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Molitor JN, Molitor JT, Thomas DC, Peters J, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(10):1433-1438. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, McConnell R, Wolch J, Chang R, Lam C, Dunton G, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Islam T, Berhane K. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. Environmental Health 2014;13:49 (9 pp.). R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Kayser BD, Goran MI, Bouret SG. Perinatal overnutrition exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation caused by high-fat feeding in C57BL/6J mice. PLoS One 2015;10(3):e0121954 (15 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kayser BD, Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk in Hispanic adolescents with obesity. Obesity 2015;23(7):1479-1485. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kim JS, Alderete TL, Chen Z, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Habre R, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal associations of in utero and early life near-roadway air pollution with trajectories of childhood body mass index. Environmental Health 2018;17(1):64 (10 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Kim JY, Goran MI, Toledo-Corral CM, Weigensberg MJ, Shaibi GQ. Comparing glycemic indicators of prediabetes: a prospective study of obese Latino Youth. Pediatric Diabetes 2015;16(8):640-643. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Li L, Lurmann F, Habre R, Urman R, Rappaport E, Ritz B, Chen JC, Gilliland FD, Wu J. Constrained mixed-effect models with ensemble learning for prediction of nitrogen oxides concentrations at high spatiotemporal resolution. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(17):9920-9929. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Lopez NV, Schembre S, Belcher BR, O'Connor S, Maher JP, Arbel R, Margolin G, Dunton GF. Parenting styles, food-related parenting practices, and children's healthy eating: a mediation analysis to examine relationships between parenting and child diet. Appetite 2018;128:205-213. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Luo S, O'Connor SG, Belcher BR, Page KA. Effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on brain response to high-calorie food cues in young adults. Obesity 2018;26(3):540-546. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Lurmann F, Avol E, Gilliland F. Emissions reduction policies and recent trends in Southern California's ambient air quality. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2015;65(3):324-335. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Shen E, Gilliland FD, Jerrett M, Wolch J, Chang C-C, Lurmann F, Berhane K. A longitudinal cohort study of body mass index and childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and air pollution: the Southern California Children's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(4):360-366. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Goran M, Allayee H, Hricko A, Mittelman S. Does near-roadway air pollution contribute to childhood obesity? Pediatric Obesity 2016;11(1):1-3. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Noble EE, Hsu TM, Jones RB, Fodor AA, Goran MI, Kanoski SE. Early-life sugar consumption affects the rat microbiome independently of obesity. The Journal of Nutrition 2017;147(1):20-28. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O'Connor SG, Ke W, Dzubur E, Schembre S, Dunton GF. Concordance and predictors of concordance of children's dietary intake as reported via ecological momentary assessment and 24 h recall. Public Health Nutrition 2018;21(6):1019-1027. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O'Reilly GA, Belcher BR, Davis JN, Martinez LT, Huh J, Antunez-Castillo L, Weigensberg M, Goran MI, Spruijt-Metz D. Effects of high-sugar and high-fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents. Obesity 2015;23(9):1886-1894. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pomatto LCD, Cline M, Woodward N, Pakbin P, Sioutas C, Morgan TE, Finch CE, Forman HJ, Davies KJA. Aging attenuates redox adaptive homeostasis and proteostasis in female mice exposed to traffic-derived nanoparticles ('vehicular smog'). Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2018;121:86-97. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Ritz B, Qiu J, Lee PC, Lurmann F, Penfold B, Erin Weiss R, McConnell R, Arora C, Hobel C, Wilhelm M. Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in Los Angeles, California. Environmental Research 2014;130:7-13. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Shankardass K, McConnell R, Jerrett M, Lam C, Wolch J, Milam J, Gilliland F, Berhane K. Parental stress increases body mass index trajectory in pre-adolescents. Pediatric Obesity 2014;9(6):435-442. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Smallwood T, Allayee H, Bennett BJ. Choline metabolites: gene by diet interactions. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2016;27(1):33-39. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Su JG, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Berhane K, Dunton G, Shankardass K, Reynolds K, Chang R, Wolch J. Factors influencing whether children walk to school. Health & Place 2013;22:153-161. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tellez-Rojo MM, Bellinger DC, Arroyo-Quiroz C, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Mercado-Garcia A, Schnaas-Arrieta L, Wright RO, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. Longitudinal associations between blood lead concentrations lower than 10 μg/dL and neurobehavioral development in environmentally exposed children in Mexico City. Pediatrics 2006;118(2):e323-e330. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Richey J, Sequeira P, Goran MI, Weigensberg MJ. Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic versus normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents. Acta Diabetologica 2015;52(2):277-284. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Habre R, Berhane K, Lurmann FW, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Gilliland FD. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(1):54-62. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Urman R, Gauderman J, Fruin S, Lurmann F, Liu F, Hosseini R, Franklin M, Avol E, Penfold B, Gilliland F, Brunekreef B, McConnell R. Determinants of the spatial distributions of elemental carbon and particulate matter in eight Southern Californian communities. Atmospheric Environment 2014;86:84-92. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Vos MB, Goran MI. Sugar, sugar ... not so sweet for the liver.Gastroenterology 2017;153(3):642-645. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Wheelock K, Zhang JJ, McConnell R, Tang D, Volk HE, Wang Y, Herbstman JB, Wang S, Phillips DH, Camann D, Gong J, Perera F. A novel method for source-specific hemoglobin adducts of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 2018;20(5):780-789. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Wu W, Muller R, Berhane K, Fruin S, Liu F, Jaspers I, Diaz-Sanchez D, Peden DB, McConnell R. Inflammatory response of monocytes to ambient particles varies by highway proximity. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2014;51(6):802-809. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Younan D, Tuvblad C, Franklin M, Lurmann F, Li L, Wu J, Berhane K, Baker LA, Chen JC. Longitudinal analysis of particulate air pollutants and adolescent delinquent behavior in Southern California. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2018;46(6):1283-1293. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Zigman JM, Bouret SG, Andrews ZB. Obesity impairs the action of the neuroendocrine ghrelin system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 2016;27(1):54-63. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Zink J, Belcher BR, Dzubur E, Ke W, O'Connor S, Huh J, Lopez N, Maher JP, Dunton GF. Association between self-reported and objective activity levels by demographic factors: ecological momentary assessment study in children. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2018;6(6):e150 (12 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Volk HE, Lurmann F, Penfold B, Hertz-Picciotto I, McConnell R. Traffic related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(1):71-77. R835441 (2017)
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