Final Report: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children

EPA Grant Number: R827352C009
Subproject: this is subproject number 009 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
Investigators: Avol, Edward L. , Cho, Arthur K. , Froines, John R. , Miguel, Antonio
Institution: University of Southern California , University of California - Los Angeles
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air


Topic C: Studies of the Effects of Varying Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Ambient Paticulate Matter (PM) and Co-pollutants and Resulting Health Effects with Emphasis on the Role of Atmospheric Chemistry

The two primary objectives guiding the sampling study were: (1) to develop an estimate of seasonal variability and annual levels of specific ambient aldehydes, quinones, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the 12 communities under study in the University of Southern California (USC) Children’s Health Study (CHS), and (2) to assess the possible association of those estimates with observed CHS health outcomes. The core studies of the CHS were funded primarily by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and full final reports can be found at: Exit .

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Using an innovative sampler deployment approach to collect seasonal samples in 12 sampling locations with only three sets of instrumentation, field sampling was successfully performed in consecutive two-month deployments across all 12 CHS communities between 2001 and 2003. In the course of field operations, an improved sampling matrix was developed to successfully capture and stabilize particle and vapor-phase PAHs, aldehydes, and quinones in a multiple-media sampling matrix for 24 hr sampling intervals. Variability in inter-community levels of PAHs, carbonyls, and quinones was observed, with apparent phase shifts between vapor and particles as the result of ambient temperature.


Ambient air samples were collected in 12 Southern California communities to assess seasonal variability and annual estimates of 15 PAHs, four quinones, and 15 aldehydes of environmental and health concern. Analyses revealed that:

  1. Virtually all of the total PAH mass was found in the vapor-phase and vapor phase PAHs were dominated by naphthalene.
  2. Vapor-phase PAH concentrations were essentially uncorrelated with those of the more commonly measured pollutants (O3, NO2, PM10, elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], ambient acids).
  3. Several particle-phase PAHs and aldehydes were strongly correlated with more commonly measured pollutants (O3, NO2, PM10, EC, OC, ambient acids).
  4. Particle-phase PAH levels were similar across most of the study sites.
  5. Particle-phase PAH levels were 2 to 54 times higher in winter than summer.
  6. Particle-phase PAH concentrations were negatively correlated with mean air temperature.
  7. In two-pollutant models assessing decrements in lung function growth rate indices (FEV1 and MMEF), the PAH, aldehyde, and quinone constituents of PM did not generally provide additional clarification in the health analyses over NO2 or PM2.5.

Technical Report:

Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 9pp., 46.7KB, about PDF)

Journal Articles on this Report : 5 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 5 publications 5 publications in selected types All 5 journal articles
Other center views: All 150 publications 149 publications in selected types All 149 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Cho AK, Di Stefano E, You Y, Rodriquez CE, Schmitz DA, Kumagai Y, Miguel AH, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Kobayashi T, Avol E, Froines JR. Determination of four quinones in diesel exhaust particles, SRM 1649a and atmospheric PM2.5. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(Suppl 1):68-81. R827352 (Final)
R827352C001 (Final)
R827352C009 (Final)
R827352C013 (Final)
R831861 (2004)
R831861 (2005)
  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Froines JR, Thurairatnam S, Avol EL. Seasonal and spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vapor-phase and PM2.5 in Southern California urban and rural communities. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(5):447-455. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R827352C013 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
  • Other: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Avol EL, Thurairatnam S, Hakami M, Froines JR, Miguel AH. Seasonal influence on vapor-and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in school communities located in Southern California. Aerosol Science & Technology 2007;41(4):438-446. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R827352C013 (Final)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Kuenzli N, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 2005;16(6):737-743. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (2006)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (2005)
    R831861C001 (2006)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (2006)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Mothers for Clean Air Colorado-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: Epidemiology-Abstract
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Molitor J, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, Peters JM. Prospective study of air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in children with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2003;168(7):790-797. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R826708 (2000)
    R826708 (2001)
    R826708 (2002)
    R826708 (Final)
    R826708C003 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ATS Journals-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: ATS Journals-Abstract
  • Other: ATS Journals-Full Text PDF
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, State, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, Environmental Monitoring, Health Effects, ambient aerosol, asthma, engine exhaust, children's health, epidemiology, human health effects, motor vehicle emissions, quinones, particulate emissions, automotive emissions, air pollution, automobiles, automotive exhaust, children, PAH, human exposure, indoor air quality, California (CA), allergens, PM characteristics, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry

    Relevant Websites:

    Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 9pp., 46.7KB, about PDF) Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)