2002 Progress Report: Gradation-Based Transport, Kinetics, Coagulation, and Flocculation of Urban Watershed Rainfall-Runoff Particulate Matter

EPA Grant Number: R827933C033
Subproject: this is subproject number 033 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825427
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Urban Waste Management and Research Center (University New Orleans)
Center Director: McManis, Kenneth
Title: Gradation-Based Transport, Kinetics, Coagulation, and Flocculation of Urban Watershed Rainfall-Runoff Particulate Matter
Investigators: Sansalone, John , Cartledge, Frank K. , Tittlebaum, Marty
Institution: Louisiana State University - Baton Rouge , University of New Orleans
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: July 1, 2002 through June 30, 2003
Project Period Covered by this Report: July 1, 2001 through June 30,2002
RFA: Urban Waste Management & Research Center (1998) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Targeted Research


To a significant degree, control of aqueous stormwater constituents (heavy metals, phosphorus, organics, etc.) are controlled by either surface complexation to transported particulate matter surfaces or engineered surfaces such as BMP media. Depending on aqueous chemistry and residence time/hydrodynamics in the urban watershed, such constituents become particulate-bound as the point of interest moves down gradient in the urban watershed. Therefore, unless aqueous conditions drastically change (oxidizing to reducing conditions–a potential problem in selected in-situ BMPs), the focus for stormwater quality control moves increasingly toward the particulate fraction. Therefore, in assessing viability of treatment mechanisms at points of interest in the watershed (time becomes a surrogate for location in the watershed), questions should focus increasingly on particulate matter. .A series of instrumented sites located in urban Baton Rouge, New Orleans, and Cincinnati, as developed from previous Urban Waste Management and Research Center research and other research funding, will be used for this study. The specific objectives for this research project are to:

  1. Quantify the kinetics of coagulation and flocculation in urban runoff as a function of entrained residence time and physical/chemical parameters. Using parameters of NT (total particle number for a given size increment) and Lnv (particle volume mean size for a given size increment or gradation) based on measured data from laser diffraction analyses, the coagulation and flocculation kinetics of particulate matter will be examined.
  2. Common assessments based on gross mass, such as total suspended solids (TSS) even if carried out properly, provide limited insight as to the potential viability of particle separation mechanisms such as sedimentation, straining, hydrodynamic separation, filtration mechanisms, Brownian or shear coagulation, and flocculation. Therefore, alternate assessment tools based on quantitative particle assessment in terms of either mass gradation or number and fractal dimensioning need to be developed for the suspended, settleable, and sediment fractions of the gradation.
  3. The inextricable relationship among hydrology, water quality, and particle transport/interaction, and the implications that these relationships have for control/treatment needs to be examined. For example, what role do hydrologic parameters (intensity, duration frequency) have on delivery of particle fractions (colloidal, suspended, settleable, and sediment), mass loading of these particle fractions and particle size gradations, nature of particles, and interactions between particles? Water quality parameters, such as the range of pH, ionic strength, and particle loadings, impact coagulation, and flocculation of anthropogenic particulate matter will be examined. All of these issues have implications for both in situ and centralized treatment.

Progress Summary:

A critical analysis tool for the field site experiments, the laboratory kinetics, and coagulation/flocculation projects has been the use of a portable laser-diffraction particle analyzer to quantify particulate gradation and number for particles transported by runoff. This equipment allowed determination of particle size measurements (such as Lnv) down to 1 mm and the particle concentration and number (NT) of particles in each size range. These data are critical for coagulation, flocculation, and fractal models. The generation of these data also allowed direct utilization of process selection diagrams for selection of particle separation unit operation BMPs. Such instrumentation, along with a turbidimeter and programmable jar tester, was utilized for the settling velocity and flocculation projects. The following tasks were completed this year:

  • Literature review, protocol development, procurement of equipment, and laboratory experimental setup.
  • Storm event sampling, particle delivery, and analyses.
  • Settling velocities in clarifier-depth (10-ft depth) settling columns.
  • Coagulation kinetics as a function of water quality and hydrodynamics.
  • Image analyses of particulate matter fractions.
  • Fractal analyses and dimensioning.
  • Flocculation studies in settling columns.
  • Field fraction studies to quantify suspended, settleable, and sediment fractions.

Examples of the results are presented in Figures 1 and 2.

Illustration of Solids Fractions in Urban Rainfall-Runoff

Figure 1. Illustration of Solids Fractions in Urban Rainfall-Runoff

Figure 2. Solid Fractions in Rainfall-Runoff for 12 Observed Rainfall-Runoff Events at the Baton Rouge Site. The upper plot does not include “grit” material that typically is trapped in catch-basin type drainage appurtenances and classified as sediment material. This material was trapped in the site catch-basin type grit chamber and quantified. The lower plot includes grit in the sediment fraction.

Future Activities:

We will perform the final data analyses and continue to develop publications. We also will present papers at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference in October. We are seeking funding to continue advancing knowledge on rainfall-runoff control.

Journal Articles on this Report : 1 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 6 publications 1 publications in selected types All 1 journal articles
Other center views: All 55 publications 13 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Sansalone JJ, Hird JP, Cartledge FK, Tittlebaum ME. Event-based stormwater quality and quantity loadings from elevated urban infrastructure affected by transportation. Water Environment Research 2005;77(4):348-365. R827933C019 (Final)
R827933C033 (2002)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Ingentaconnect
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    particulate, sedimentation, runoff, NPDES, best management practice, Scientific Discipline, Water, Hydrology, Environmental Monitoring, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, fate and transport, particulates, flocculation kinetics, watersheds, total suspended solids, water quality, aqueous waste, stormwater runoff

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R825427    Urban Waste Management and Research Center (University New Orleans)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R825427C001 Comprehensive Evaluation of The Dual Trickling Filter Solids Contact Process
    R825427C002 Issues Involving the Vertical Expansion of Landfills
    R825427C003 Deep Foundations on Brownfields Sites
    R825427C004 Ambient Particulate Concentration Model for Traffic Intersections
    R825427C005 Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Approaches for I/I Reduction
    R825427C006 Urban Solid Waste Management Videos
    R825427C007 UWMRC Community Outreach Multimedia Exhibit
    R825427C008 Including New Technology into the Investigation of Inappropriate Pollutant Entries into Storm Drainage Systems - A User's Guide
    R825427C009 Investigation of Hydraulic Characteristics and Alternative Model Development of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands
    R825427C010 Beneficial Use Of Urban Runoff For Wetland Enhancement
    R825427C011 Urban Storm and Waste Water Outfall Modeling
    R827933C001 Development of a Model Sediment Control Ordinance for Louisiana
    R827933C002 Inappropriate Discharge to Stormwater Drainage (Demonstration Project)
    R827933C003 Alternate Liner Evaluation Model
    R827933C004 LA DNR - DEQ - Regional Waste Management
    R827933C005 Landfill Design Specifications
    R827933C006 Geosynthetic Clay Liners as Alternative Barrier Systems
    R827933C007 Used Tire Monofill
    R827933C008 A Comparison of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (USAB) and the Anaerobic Biofilm Fluidized Bed Reactor (ABFBR) for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater
    R827933C009 Integrated Environmental Management Plan for Shipbuilding Facilities
    R827933C010 Nicaragua
    R827933C011 Louisiana Environmental Education and Resource Program
    R827933C012 Costa Rica - Costa Rican Initiative
    R827933C013 Evaluation of Cr(VI) Exposure Assessment in the Shipbuilding Industry
    R827933C014 LaTAP, Louisiana Technical Assistance Program: Pollution Prevention for Small Businesses
    R827933C015 Louisiana Environmental Leadership Pollution Prevention Program
    R827933C016 Inexpensive Non-Toxic Pigment Substitute for Chromium in Primer for Aluminum Sibstrate
    R827933C017 China - Innovative Waste Composting Plan for the City of Benxi, People's Rupublic of China
    R827933C018 Institutional Control in Brownfields Redevelopment: A Methodology for Community Participation and Sustainability
    R827933C019 Physico-Chemical Assessment for Treatment of Storm Water From Impervious Urban Watersheds Typical of the Gulf Coast
    R827933C020 Influence of Cyclic Interfacial Redox Conditions on the Structure and Integrity of Clay Liners for Landfills Subject to Variable High Groundwater Conditions in the Gulf Coast Region
    R827933C021 Characterizing Moisture Content Within Landfills
    R827933C022 Bioreactor Landfill Moisture Management
    R827933C023 Urban Water Issues: A Video Series
    R827933C024 Water Quality Modeling in Urban Storm Water Systems
    R827933C025 The Development of a Web Based Instruction (WBI) Program for the UWMRC User's Guide (Investigation of Inappropriate Pollutant Entries Into Storm Drainage Systems)
    R827933C027 Legal Issues of SSO's: Private Property Sources and Non-NPDES Entities
    R827933C028 Brownfields Issues: A Video Series
    R827933C029 Facultative Landfill Bioreactors (FLB): A Pilot-Scale Study of Waste Stabilization, Landfill Gas Emissions, Leachate Treatment, and Landfill Geotechnical Properties
    R827933C030 Advances in Municipal Wastewater Treatment
    R827933C031 Design Criteria for Sanitary Sewer System Rehabilitation
    R827933C032 Deep Foundations in Brownfield Areas: Continuing Investigation
    R827933C033 Gradation-Based Transport, Kinetics, Coagulation, and Flocculation of Urban Watershed Rainfall-Runoff Particulate Matter
    R827933C034 Leaching and Stabilization of Solid-Phase Residuals Separated by Storm Water BMPs Capturing Urban Runoff Impacted by Transportation Activities and Infrastructure
    R827933C035 Fate of Pathogens in Storm Water Runoff
    R87933C020 Influence of Cyclic Interfacial Redox Conditions on the Structure and Integrity of Clay Liners for Landfills Subject to Variable High Groundwater Conditions in the Gulf Coast Region