2000 Progress Report: Development and Evaluation of a Novel Sampling Method to Determine the Phase Partitioning of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds

EPA Grant Number: R825270
Title: Development and Evaluation of a Novel Sampling Method to Determine the Phase Partitioning of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
Investigators: Koutrakis, Petros , Sioutas, Constantinos
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Project Period: December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1999 (Extended to November 11, 2000)
Project Period Covered by this Report: December 1, 1999 through November 30, 2000
Project Amount: $409,507
RFA: Air Quality (1996) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Air

Objective:

The objectives of this research project are to: (1) develop a novel semi-volatile organic compound (SVOCs) sampler that is designed to minimize sampling biases; and (2) design and test a SVOC sampler that will collect and size particulate matter as well as gas phase SVOCs.

Progress Summary:

In this final year of the study, four instrumental methods were completed. Each method is designed to minimize volatilization of SVOCs, either during collection on substrates or during the process of particle concentration enrichment for toxicological tests.

High Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI). The HVCI operates at a flow rate of 900 liters per minute (LPM) and consists of a variable number of impaction stages and a backup filter. The backup filter is used to collect the ultrafine particles (size 0.1 µm). The capacity of the impaction substrate is 2.15 grams of collected particles per cm2 of polyurethane foam (PUF).

Personal Cascade Impactor (CASPER). The CASPER uses a battery operated personal sampling pump, operates at a flow rate of 5 LPM, and consists of four impaction stages with slit-shaped acceleration nozzles and a backup filter. The cutpoints of the four stages are 9.6, 2.6, 1.0, and 0.5 µm, respectively. The backup filter collects particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 0.5 µm.

Ultrafine Particle Concentrator (UFPC). The UFPC has the following features: (1) a flow of 2,500 LPM; (2) ultrafine particles grow condensationally to supermicron sizes, using water as a condensing medium; (3) able to operate with typical ranges of ambient air temperature and relative humidity; (4) a coarse particle virtual impactor is used to concentrate the grown particles; and (5) a thermal dryer is used to return the condensationally grown particles back to their original size.

Harvard Coarse Particle Concentrator (HCPC). The optimal design of the HCPC has the following characteristics: (1) a flow rate of 11.4 LPM per centimeter length of the acceleration slit; (2) an Re value of 2,520; (3) a 5 percent minor-to-total flow ratio; (4) a size cut-off of 2.4 µm, and; (5) a concentration enrichment factor (CEF) value of about 17.

Future Activities:

It would be worthwhile to conduct a field evaluation of the CASPER, using ambient air at different locations for different seasons of the year, by comparing with a reference method, such as the micro-orifice impactor (MOI). Currently, a higher volume (5,000 LPM) UFPC is being designed and tested. This instrument will provide twice the flow of concentrated ultrafine particles than the original system, increasing the capability for animal exposure studies. A higher capacity HCPC also is being developed, which will, again, increase the capability for animal exposure experiments. A complete SVOC sampler, which has all of the validated components that were included in our original objectives was never actually assembled during this study, therefore it would be worthwhile to undertake such a project.


Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 14 publications 10 publications in selected types All 10 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Demokritou P, Gupta T, Ferguson S, Koutrakis P. Development and laboratory characterization of a prototype coarse particle concentrator for inhalation toxicological studies. Journal of Aerosol Science 2002;33(8):1111-1123. R825270 (2000)
R825270 (Final)
R827353 (Final)
R827353C017 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Demokritou P, Gupta T, Koutrakis P. A high volume apparatus for the condensational growth of ultrafine particles for inhalation toxicological studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(11):1061-1072. R825270 (2000)
    R825270 (Final)
    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C017 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Demokritou P, Gupta T, Ferguson S, Koutrakis P. Development and laboratory performance evaluation of a personal cascade impactor. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2002;52(10):1230-1237. R825270 (2000)
    R825270 (Final)
    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C017 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Demokritou P, Kavouras IG, Ferguson ST, Koutrakis P. Development of a high volume cascade impactor for toxicological and chemical characterization studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(9):925-933. R825270 (2000)
    R825270 (Final)
    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C017 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air, ambient air, atmosphere, tropospheric, exposure, toxics, PCBs, environmental chemistry, measurement methods, Northeast, Atlantic coast, Massachusetts, MA, EPA Region 1, air, geographic area, scientific discipline, atmospheric sciences, ecological risk assessment, environmental chemistry, state, air toxics, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, PAH, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, aerosol partitioning, air pollutants, air quality criteria, air sampling, ambient air quality, ambient monitoring, atmospheric chemistry, chemical analysis, chemical composition, collection efficiency, gas phase, measurement methods, particle size, particulates., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, State, Atmospheric Sciences, Ecological Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, particle size, particulates, phase partitioning, air pollutants, collection efficiency, gas phase, aerosol partitioning, air quality criteria, ambient monitoring, chemical composition, PAH, Massachusetts (MA), air sampling, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), chemical amalysis, atmospheric chemistry

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999 Progress Report
  • Final Report