Final Report: Exposure Core

EPA Grant Number: R827355C008
Subproject: this is subproject number 008 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827355
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health
Center Director: Koenig, Jane Q.
Title: Exposure Core
Investigators: Larson, Timothy V. , Liu, Sally
Institution: University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2004 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The primary objectives of the exposure core were: 1) providing technical support for the Seattle panel study exposure assessments; 2) designing and operating the diesel exposure facility; 3) supporting several multi-center activities including participating in the source apportionment and health workshop and collecting samples for the toxicology round robin. In addition, we provided air quality expertise to all center investigators throughout the entire grant period.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

In support of the panel studies, the exposure core lab developed a low-cost filter weighing facility (Allen et al., 2001), constructed indoor and outdoor air sampling systems (pump boxes, sampler housings, etc.), developed facilities and procedures to process daily field samples, established the capability to measure particle light absorption on all collected filters as an alternate exposure metric (Jansen et al., 2005), examined the PM concentration-response relationships of various light scattering methods used in various field microenvironments (Liu et al., 2002), provided initial technical assistance for implementation of the recursive model used to estimate particle infiltration (Allen et al, 2001, 2003), implemented multivariate receptor models to estimate indoor, outdoor and personal source contributions as well as outdoor spatial distributions of these concentrations (Maykut et al., 2003; Larson et al, 2004), and developed new multivariate receptor models applied at the central study site that combine traditional filter based measurements with particle size distribution (and thus infiltration)information (Kim et al., 2004; Larson et al., 2005).

We also designed and supervised operated the Northlake diesel exhaust exposure facility. This facility has several unique features, including the ability to provide controlled exposure atmospheres of diluted diesel exhaust for both sub-chronic exposures to rodents as well as controlled acute exposures to humans. The exposure core has also developed the associated exposure characterization capabilities including real-time measurements necessary for proper quality assurance as well as detailed characterization of particle size and composition. The facility is currently being used in support of several other research projects, including an EPA STAR grant focusing on acute human cardiovascular effects and several NIEHS grants focusing on chronic cardiovascular effects in genetically altered mice.

The exposure core also participated in the source apportionment workshop hosted by the NYU PM Center (Thurston et al, 2005; Ito et al., 2005; Hopke et al., 2005; and Mar et al., 2005). We also deployed and operated a Chem-Vol high volume impactor at local agency monitoring site that is heavily impacted by winter wood smoke. This experiment was done in support of the multi-center round robin toxicology experiment.

Most recently, PM Center investigators have been collaborating on a cross-boundary study with the Universities of British Columbia and Victoria. One objective of this research is to develop a model for traffic and woodsmoke exposure in the Puget sound area. An abstract describing preliminary results will be presented at the International Society for Exposure Assessment meeting in September, 2006. A copy of the abstract follows.

Mobile monitoring of particulate black carbon concentrations in an urban area.
Larson TV, Farcia N, Covert D, Brauer M.

Introduction: Interest in chronic exposure to air pollution has led to an increased focus on the spatial distribution of traffic related air pollutants within urban environments. Measuring this distribution has usually involved using numerous fixed-site passive NO2/NOx badges simultaneously deployed for a week or more. Here we describe a relatively simple mobile monitoring method for particulate black carbon intended to complement the fixed-site NOx sampler approach. Methods: A particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and accompanying pump were placed inside a conventional gasoline powered vehicle and powered with a marine battery connected through an inverter. The instrument sampled air from the driver side rear window and the readings were recorded each second with a serial datalogger. The vehicle was driven continuously along one of six routes. These routes were driven during peak afternoon traffic periods (~4-7 PM) between July and August, 2005 and were chosen to include 36 roadway intersections previously sampled for NO2 and NOx using a simultaneous, fixed-site sampler array. Initial attempts at sampling during morning rush hour resulted in less stable measurements due to rapid temporal variability in the missing height. One centrally located intersection was visited during each afternoon mobile sampling period. From 5 to 8 additional locations could also be sampled during any given sampling period. The vehicle traced a cloverleaf pattern at each intersection, circling the four adjacent blocks surrounding the intersection and thus passing through the actual intersection four times. The average PSAP readings taken during this cloverleaf traverse were used in subsequent analyses. The ratio of the average reading at each site to that at the central site was computed for each run and then averaged across all sample periods. These average site ratios were then compared with the 5 day average NOx concentrations measured previously at 36 separate locations. Results: We found a high correlation between the mobile Black Carbon and fixed site NOx measurements (r=0.77). Discussion and Conclusions: We were able to identify the relative impact of traffic emissions at numerous locations using a simple mobile sampling strategy. The strong correlation between this method and the passive sampling network data is encouraging, given that we only sampled at any given intersection for about 10 minutes, that we were measuring black carbon rather than NOx, and that NOx and black carbon measurements were not made simultaneously nor adjusted for seasonal variability.


Journal Articles on this Report : 21 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 21 publications 21 publications in selected types All 21 journal articles
Other center views: All 209 publications 113 publications in selected types All 109 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Allen R, Box M, Liu L-JS, Larson TV. A cost-effective weighing chamber for particulate matter filters. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2001;51(12):1650-1653. R827355 (2001)
R827355 (Final)
R827355C003 (2001)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Allen R, Larson T, Sheppard L, Wallace L, Liu L-JS. Use of real-time light scattering data to estimate the contribution of infiltrated and indoor-generated particles to indoor air. Environmental Science & Technology 2003;37(16):3484-3492. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C003 (2003)
    R827355C003 (Final)
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    R827355C009 (2003)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Allen R, Wallace L, Larson T, Sheppard L, Liu L-JS. Estimated hourly personal exposures to ambient and nonambient particulate matter among sensitive populations in Seattle, Washington. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2004;54(9):1197-1211. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C003 (2003)
    R827355C003 (2004)
    R827355C003 (Final)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Other: ResearchGate - Abstract & Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Claiborn CS, Finn D, Larson TV, Koenig JQ. Windblown dust contributes to high PM2.5 concentrations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2000;50(8):1440-1445. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C002 (2001)
    R827355C003 (1999)
    R827355C008 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Claiborn CS, Larson T, Sheppard L. Testing the metals hypothesis in Spokane, Washington. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):547-552. R827355 (2001)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (2002)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R828678C010 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Hopke PK, Ito K, Mar T, Christiansen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Paatero P, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects:1. Intercomparison of source apportionment results. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(3):275-286. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
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    R827353C017 (Final)
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    R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ito K, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Neas L, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects: 2. An investigation of intermethod variability in associations between source-apportioned fine particle mass and daily mortality in Washington, DC. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):300-310. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R827351 (Final)
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    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C015 (Final)
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    R832415 (2010)
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    R832415 (Final)
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  • Full-text: JESEE-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Jansen KL, Larson TV, Koenig JQ, Mar TF, Fields C, Stewart J, Lippmann M. Associations between health effects and particulate matter and black carbon in subjects with respiratory disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1741-1746. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C002 (2004)
    R827355C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jimenez J, Claiborn C, Larson T, Gould T, Kirchstetter TW, Gundel L. Loading effect correction for real-time aethalometer measurements of fresh diesel soot. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2007;57(7):868-873. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Larson TV, Hopke PK, Slaughter C, Sheppard LE, Claiborn C. Source identification of PM2.5 in an arid Northwest U.S. city by positive matrix factorization. Atmospheric Research 2003;66(4):291-305. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (2002)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R827355C009 (2003)
    R827354 (Final)
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    R828678C010 (2003)
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    R828678C010 (2005)
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    R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Maykut NN, Lewtas J. Factor analysis of Seattle fine particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(7):724-738. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C004 (2003)
    R827355C008 (2003)
    R827355C008 (Final)
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    R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Covert DS. Analysis of ambient particle size distributions using Unmix and positive matrix factorization. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):202-209. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C004 (2003)
    R827355C008 (2002)
    R827355C008 (2003)
    R827355C008 (Final)
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    R832415 (2010)
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    R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Larson TV, Covert DS, Kim E, Elleman R, Schreuder AB, Lumley T. Combining size distribution and chemical species measurements into a multivariate receptor model of PM2.5. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 2006;111(D10):D10S09 (10 pp.). R827355 (Final)
    R827355C004 (Final)
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  • Full-text: AGU-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: AGU-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Larson T, Gould T, Simpson C, Liu L-JS, Claiborn C, Lewtas J. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 in Seattle, Washington, using positive matrix factorization. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2004;54(9):1175-1187. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C003 (Final)
    R827355C008 (2003)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R827355C010 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Liu L-JS, Slaughter JC, Larson TV. Comparison of light scattering devices and impactors for particulate measurements in indoor, outdoor, and personal environments. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(13):2977-2986. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C001 (Final)
    R827355C003 (2001)
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  • Journal Article Mar TF, Ito K, Koenig JQ, Larson TV, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Neas L, Stolzel M, Paatero P, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects. 3. Investigation of inter-method variations in associations between estimated source contributions of PM2.5 and daily mortality in Phoenix, AZ. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):311-320. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Maykut NN, Lewtas J, Kim E, Larson TV. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at an urban IMPROVE site in Seattle, Washington. Environmental Science & Technology 2003;37(22):5135-5142. R827355 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Prophete C, Maciejczyk P, Salnikow K, Gould T, Larson T, Koenig J, Jaques P, Sioutas C, Lippmann M, Cohen M. Effects of select PM-associated metals on alveolar macrophage phosphorylated ERK1 and-2 and iNOS expression during ongoing alteration in iron homeostasis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A:Current Issues 2006;69(10):935-951. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
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    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Schreuder AB, Larson TV, Sheppard L, Claiborn CS. Ambient woodsmoke and associated respiratory emergency department visits in Spokane, Washington. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 2006;12(2):147-153. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R828678C010 (2007)
    R828678C010 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Slaughter JC, Kim E, Sheppard L, Sullivan JH, Larson TV, Claiborn C. Association between particulate matter and emergency room visits, hospital admissions and mortality in Spokane, Washington. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):153-159. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R827355C009 (2002)
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    R828678C010 (2003)
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  • Journal Article Thurston GD, Ito K, Mar T, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Hopke PK. Workgroup report: Workshop on source apportionment of particulate matter health effects—intercomparison of results and implications. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1768-1774. R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
    R827351 (Final)
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    R827353 (Final)
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    R832415 (2010)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    ambient particles, fine particles, combustion, health, exposure, biostatistics, susceptibility, human susceptibility, sensitive populations, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, indoor air, indoor air quality, indoor environment, tropospheric ozone, California, CA, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, hydrocarbons, acute cardiovascular effects, aerosols, air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, airborne pollutants, airway disease, airway inflammation, allergen, ambient aerosol, ambient aerosol particles, ambient air, ambient air quality, ambient particle health effects, animal model, assessment of exposure, asthma, atmospheric aerosols, atmospheric chemistry, biological markers, biological response, cardiopulmonary response, cardiovascular disease, children, children’s vulnerability, combustion, combustion contaminants, combustion emissions, epidemiology, exposure, exposure and effects, exposure assessment, harmful environmental agents, hazardous air pollutants, health effects, health risks, human exposure, human health effects, human health risk, incineration, inhalation, lead, morbidity, mortality, mortality studies, particle exposure, particle transport, particulates, particulate matter, PM, risk assessment,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Geographic Area, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, Epidemiology, State, Air Pollution Effects, Northwest, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Biochemistry, Physical Processes, genetic susceptability, Atmospheric Sciences, Risk Assessment, ambient aerosol, ambient air quality, biostatistics, health effects, particulates, sensitive populations, cardiopulmonary responses, health risks, human health effects, morbidity, exposure and effects, acute cardiovascular effects, dose-response, exposure, hazardous air pollutants, epidemelogy, air pollution, Human Health Risk Assessment, particle exposure, cardiopulmonary response, human exposure, inhalation, atmospheric aerosols, ambient particle health effects, mortality studies, PM, human susceptibility, mortality, California (CA), aerosols, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiovascular disease, exposure assessment, human health risk, particle transport, toxics

    Relevant Websites:

    http://depts.washington.edu/pmcenter/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827355    Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827355C001 Epidemiologic Study of Particulate Matter and Cardiopulmonary Mortality
    R827355C002 Health Effects
    R827355C003 Personal PM Exposure Assessment
    R827355C004 Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter
    R827355C005 Mechanisms of Toxicity of Particulate Matter Using Transgenic Mouse Strains
    R827355C006 Toxicology Project -- Controlled Exposure Facility
    R827355C007 Health Effects Research Core
    R827355C008 Exposure Core
    R827355C009 Statistics and Data Core
    R827355C010 Biomarker Core
    R827355C011 Oxidation Stress Makers