Environmental Risk Assessment of Phosphate-Based Remedial Technology in Metal Contaminated Urban and Mining Areas in a Selected Missouri Superfund Site

EPA Grant Number: R831071
Title: Environmental Risk Assessment of Phosphate-Based Remedial Technology in Metal Contaminated Urban and Mining Areas in a Selected Missouri Superfund Site
Investigators: Yang, John , Campbell, Marjorie , Eivazi, Frieda
Institution: Lincoln University-MO , Missouri Department of Natural Resources , University of Missouri - Columbia
Current Institution: Lincoln University-MO
EPA Project Officer: Carleton, James N
Project Period: October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2006 (Extended to October 31, 2007)
Project Amount: $397,975
RFA: Superfund Minority Institutions Program: Hazardous Substance Research (2002) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management , Safer Chemicals


In situ immobilization of lead in contaminated soils through phosphate amendments is being tested as a cost-effective remedial alternative to safeguard human health and ecosystem from the environmental contamination. Although the phosphate treatment has been proven to effectively reduce human exposure for contaminated metals, particularly lead, the long-term environmental risk assessment of the phosphate-based remedial technology itself has not been investigated and is largely unknown. Deployment of the immobilization technology using phosphate-based materials requires a comprehensive assessment that verifies the risk reduction to human and ecosystem by in situ soil treatment is long-term and environmental-safe in order to be approved by federal and local regulatory agencies and to become publicly acceptable.

Overall goal of this proposed project is to determine whether the health risk reduction and stabilization of soil metals by in situ phosphate treatment are nearly permanent or long-term, and the impact of the soil treatment on ecosystem is minimum. The proposed research tasks include: i) Long-term bioavailability assessment that include in vitro bioavailability test, phyto-availability test, and micro-toxicity test; ii) Leachability/Stability assessment under various chemical and biological conditions; iii) Identification of chemical species responsible for metal or phosphate stability and mobility; iv) Evaluation of soil microbial community alteration upon the soil treatment; and v) Long-term monitoring of water quality upon the soil treatment. This project will combine both field and laboratory investigations, and primarily focus on two pilot field treatment sites that have been established by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources and are located in the urban and mining areas, respectively, in the Jasper County Superfund Site, Missouri.

This proposed studies will provide much needed scientific evidence of the efficacy and environmental safety of the phosphate-based remedial technology as well as an understanding of metal immobilization processes, which is essential to regulatory agencies and public for decision-making of treatment selection and large-scale implementation of the technology. If successful, the methodologies used in this project could also be extended beyond and used for risk assessment of similar remedial techniques such as in situ Cr reduction through reductive sulfur compounds.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this project: View all 21 publications for this project

Journal Articles:

Journal Articles have been submitted on this project: View all 3 journal articles for this project

Supplemental Keywords:

soil metal contamination; phosphate treatment; in situ immobilization, risk assessment, RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Waste, Water, Geographic Area, TREATMENT/CONTROL, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Waste Treatment, Contaminated Sediments, Environmental Chemistry, Remediation, State, Hazardous Waste, Soil Contaminants, Ecological Risk Assessment, Ecology and Ecosystems, Environmental Engineering, Hazardous, Superfund site remediation, phosphate treatment, hazardous waste treatment, risk assessment, sediment treatment, in situ remediation, metal stabilization, contaminated waste sites, bioavailability, contaminated sediment, lead, contaminated soil, ecological impacts, metals-contaminated soil, phosphate remedial technology, water quality, Missouri (MO), hazardous waste sites, heavy metal contamination, mining waste, metal contamination, mining wastes, metal remediation

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007
  • Final Report