Final Report: Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)

EPA Grant Number: R828678C009
Subproject: this is subproject number 009 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
Investigators: Sioutas, Constantinos
Institution: University of Southern California , University of Southern California
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 2, 2001 through December 31, 2005 (Extended to December 31, 2008)
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The objective of this research project was to develop a personal sampler for particulate matter (PM) that would allow separation of airborne particles by size and analyses of the particles for their toxic metal content. The sampler would operate with the help of a high efficiency personal air pump (pump) that would be developed by SKC, Inc., via an independent contract with the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC). Both the development of the personal sampler and the pump were closely coordinated. One sampler unit was developed as part of this grant. Specific aims of the study included: (1) development of the personal sampler; (2) evaluation of compatibility with the pump; (3) laboratory evaluation of the sampler/pump system; and (4) field evaluation of the sampler/pump system. This project began in October 2000.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

This study was developed in response to NUATRC Request for Applications (RFA) 99-01, “Development of New Generation Personal Monitors for Fine Particulate Matter and its Metal Content.” It was awarded to the University of Southern California in October 2000 to develop a PM personal sampler that would: (1) provide continuous 24-hour sampling; (2) separate particles by size; and (3) be unobtrusive, inexpensive, and easy to use. The project is in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures as per NUATRC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines.

The study developed a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS), which is a miniaturized cascade impactor consisting of four impaction stages followed by an after-filter. Particles are separated in the following aerodynamic particle diameter ranges: less than 0.25; 0.25–0.5; 0.5–1.0; 1.0–2.5; and 2.5–10 μm. The PCIS operates at a flow rate of 9 LPM using a very high efficiency, battery-operated light weight pump at a pressure drop of 11 in H2O (2.7 kPa).

Each PCIS stage was evaluated using four impaction substrates: (a) 2.5 cm quartz filter; (b) 2.5 cm aluminum foil disk; (c) 2.5 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter; and (d) 2.5 cm quartz filter coated with a thin layer of mineral oil (for the 0.25 μm stage only). The results suggested that the use of coating for minimizing particle bounce would potentially interfere with chemical analysis of the collected PM and is not necessary.

Experiments were conducted for the 0.25 and 1.0 μm stages, using PTFE substrates to identify a maximum particle mass loading range in a given PCIS stage. The data demonstrated that particle bounce and reentrainment do not occur for loadings at least as high as 3.16 mg.

Tests were performed to evaluate the ability of the PCIS to conserve labile constituents using labile aerosol such as the polydisperse ammonium nitrate. The results indicated that the cutpoints of the stages were conserved.

Tests conducted with the PCIS in the wind tunnel facility of the School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, showed that the particle penetration characteristics of the PCIS 2.5 μm stage were unaffected by the wind speeds.

A field study was conducted wherein the PCIS was collocated with the Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) (Model 110, MSP Corp, Minneapolis, MN) and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) (TSI Model 3936), Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) (TSI Model 3320) inside the particle instrumentation unit. The tests indicated that losses from the PCIS were substantially lower than those in the MOUDI. Very good overall agreement was obtained between the PCIS and SMPS-APS concentrations for the particle sizes 2.5-1.0, 0.5-1.0, and 0.25-0.5 μm.

The compatibility of the PCIS and a prototype of the Leland Legacy Pump developed by SKC, Inc., was tested in a single run by operating the PCIS in conjunction with the pump for a 24-hour period. The test run was successful because the flow rate and pressure drop are conserved over the 24-hour period.

A draft final report for the study was received by NUATRC in December 2002 and was reviewed by a team of external reviewers and the Center’s Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). A revised final report was received in April 2003 and was reviewed by the SAP. Scientific editing of the revised final report is complete. The final report was published in October 2004.

The sampler is available commercially as the “Sioutas Cascade Impactor” on the Web at http://www.skcinc.com/new.asp Exit .


Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 6 publications 6 publications in selected types All 4 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Misra C, Singh M, Shen S, Sioutas C, Hall PM. Development and evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS). Journal of Aerosol Science 2002;33(7):1027-1047. R828678C007 (2001)
R828678C007 (2002)
R828678C007 (2003)
R828678C007 (2004)
R828678C007 (Final)
R828678C009 (2003)
R828678C009 (Final)
R827352 (2004)
R827352 (Final)
R827352C014 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Misra C, Fine PM, Singh M, Sioutas C. Development and evaluation of a compact facility for exposing humans to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(1):27-35. R828678C009 (2001)
    R828678C009 (Final)
    R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Singh M, Misra C, Sioutas C. Field evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS). Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(34):4781-4793. R828678C009 (2002)
    R828678C009 (2003)
    R828678C009 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Chemicals, Air Pollution Effects, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, Risk Assessment, health effects, urban air, urban air quality, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, air pollutants, human health effects, atmospheric particles, aerosol particles, exposure, air sampling pump, chemical composition, air sampling, chemical detection techniques, human exposure, environmental contaminants, lung inflamation, particulate exposure, personal cascade impactor sampler, urban air pollution, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), human health, cardiovascular disease, exposure assessment, heavy metals, human health risk, biomarker

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.skcinc.com/new.asp Exit
    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Southern California Particle Center

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children