2004 Progress Report: Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)EPA Grant Number: R828678C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
Investigators: Kinney, Patrick L. , Pederson, Dee C. , Spengler, John D. , Ross, James M. , Johnson, Dave , Aggarwal, Maneesha , Ramstrom, Sonja , Chillrud, Steven
Current Investigators: Kinney, Patrick L. , Spengler, John D. , Ramstrom, Sonja , Chillrud, Steven
Institution: Columbia University - Mailman School of Public Health , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University
Current Institution: Columbia University - Mailman School of Public Health , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2003 through January 31, 2004
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research
The purpose of this research effort is to study the personal exposures to urban air toxics experienced by a group of students living in New York City (NYC) and in Los Angeles (LA). The study would provide information on the roles of seasons and days of the week, different meteorological conditions and daily activities on exposures to selected volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, and metals on particles (< 2.5μm) present in the environment. Soluble fractions of selected metals also were assayed for correlations with source measurements. Exposure measurements were made in indoor, outdoor, and personal environments. The investigators related these exposures to the apportionment of air toxics among area, point, and mobile sources, as well as non-anthropogenic sources.
The overall objective of the TEACH study is to characterize levels of and factors influencing personal exposures to urban air toxics among high school students living in inner city neighborhoods. To characterize exposure levels, we collected personal concentration data over 48 hours in groups of 30-40 students in two cities, NYC and LA. To characterize factors influencing exposures, we collected a variety of additional data, including simultaneous home indoor, home outdoor, fixed-site urban, and fixed-site upwind concentrations, along with air exchange rates, home characteristics, and personal activity pattern data. To provide a wider range of air exchange rates, activity patterns, ambient concentrations and compositions, the measurements were carried out in two very different cities and in two seasons per city.
The study was funded in response to National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) request for applications 96-01. The project commenced in December 1997 and was scheduled to be completed in December 2000. Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH) study is in compliance with Columbia University’s Institutional Review Board guidelines and governmental human consent regulations. The project is also in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures as per NUATRC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The study results will be presented in two reports, one on the NYC data set and the other on the LA data set.
The New York City TEACH Study
The draft Final Report on the NYC data set was submitted to the NUATRC in May 2002. The report was reviewed by a team of external peer reviewers and the Center’s Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). The revised Final Report was received by the Center on August 19, 2003 and was reviewed by the SAP. The revised Final Report has undergone scientific editing. It currently is in press with an anticipated publication date of February 2005.
The LA draft Final Report was received and sent to four external reviewers. To complete the external review process, revisions, and scientific editing of the LA report, the study has been granted a no-cost extension through June 2005.
The NYC report includes the following data analysis themes: (1) urban influence (city versus upwind source attribution); (2) influence of ambient concentrations on personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its components; (3) cancer risk assessment for VOCs; (4) indoor/outdoor ratios as a function of air exchange; indoor source strength estimates for VOCs; (5) indoor black carbon as a tracer of urban PM2.5 of ambient origin; and (6) elevated metal exposures in subways.
To determine the spatial and temporal influences on ambient VOC concentrations in NYC, the researchers attempted to identify common factors or sources, determine which compounds have the greatest urban contribution, apportion the spatial and temporal variability in concentrations, and examine the seasonal and traffic volume effects. Two main groups of compounds, mobile source related and secondarily formed, were identified. The mobile source related compounds tended to have greater spatial variability and traffic volume effects. The secondarily formed compounds tended to have greater temporal variability and a large seasonal effect.
Urban fixed -site medians for the mobile source related BTEX+ (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds were 2 to 3 times higher than the upwind fixed -site during the winter sampling. Similar patterns were seen for summer sampling except for benzene. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde also were elevated in summer at both fixed sites, but the differences between upwind and urban sites were more modest. The chlorinated compounds showed less consistent ambient patterns overall.
Comparison of home outdoor concentrations with fixed -site data suggests that for the BTEX+ compounds, the home outdoor medians were consistently higher, suggesting the influence of local traffic proximal to home locations.
Indoor and personal median concentrations of mobile source VOCs were similar in the winter. In the summer, personal values were 25 percent to 100 percent higher than indoor median values. Personal and indoor aldehyde levels were 6 times higher than ambient levels in winter and 2.5 to 6 times higher in the summer. In the summer, personal exposures were higher than indoors, suggesting additional exposures.
The VOCs exhibited three distinct patterns: one set including carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were clearly of outdoor origin ; another set including chloroform, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,4 dichlorobenzene gave clear evidence of indoor sources; and finally 1,3-butadiene was difficult to interpret.
For most of the particle elements, indoor and personal values did not indicate substantial enrichment over outdoor levels. Only a few elements, including cadmium, potassium and tin in winter, and chromium and tin in summer, appeared to have indoor sources. The analysis suggests that both sulfate and black carbon are pollutants of largely outdoor origin in NYC. Subway sampling for metal concentrations and correlation with personal exposure levels suggested that for iron, manganese, and chromium, the NYC subway system appears to be a very important micro-environment.
Preliminary results for carcinogenic risk assessment indicated that most of the VOCs and three metals (chromium, nickel, and arsenic) had median cancer risks that exceeded 10-6, which is the EPA benchmark for cancer risk.
The report currently is being edited by a scientific editor and expected to be published in May 2005.
The Los Angeles TEACH Study
A draft final report was received on December 14, 2004. The report is currently under external peer review. This report presents the objectives, methods, and results of the LA phase of the TEACH study. In addition, this report compares results for LA with those obtained in the NYC phase of the TEACH Study. The specific aims and approaches addressed in this Final Report are:
Aim 1. Describe the distributions of air toxics measured on personal, home indoor, home outdoor, and ambient fixed -site locations in LA. Compare these data with concentrations measured in NYC.
Approach. Distributions of measured air concentrations are presented for each compound stratified by sample location and season. Results for NYC are presented and compared for selected air toxics.
Aim 2. Distinguish the roles of season and the impact of urban areas on ambient concentrations of air toxics in LA.
Approach. Concentrations of air pollutants were compared across seasons and “urban” contributions were determined by comparing concentrations between the urban fixed-site and a background site.
Aim 3. Analyze the relationship between home indoor and home outdoor air toxic concentrations in LA and assess source strengths for VOCs indoors.
Approach. Rank pollutants by indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios. Compare I/O ratios across seasons and across levels of individual home air exchange rates. Distinguish between pollutants for which indoor levels appear to be driven by indoor sources versus those driven by outdoor concentrations. Calculate the source strengths for VOCs driven by indoor sources.
Aim 4. Analyze levels, determinants of, and risks associated with, personal exposures to air toxics among high school students in LA.
Approach. Analyze the relationship between personal, indoor, and outdoor air toxic concentrations. Distinguish among pollutants for which indoor versus outdoor concentrations appear to be the principal driver of personal exposures. Carry out preliminary risk assessment for the measured personal exposure levels.
We will publish the NYC Final Report and complete scientific peer review, revisions, and editing of the LA Final Report.
Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format
|Other subproject views:||All 15 publications||5 publications in selected types||All 5 journal articles|
|Other center views:||All 144 publications||62 publications in selected types||All 53 journal articles|
||Chillrud SN, Epstein D, Ross JM, Sax SN, Pederson D, Spengler JD, Kinney PL. Elevated airborne exposures of teenagers to manganese, chromium, and iron from steel dust in New York City's subway system. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(3):732-737.||
||Kinney PL, Chillrud SN, Ramstrom S, Ross J, Spengler JD. Exposures to multiple air toxics in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):539-546.||
||Sax SN, Bennett DH, Chillrud SN, Kinney PL, Spengler JD. Differences in source emission rates of volatile organic compounds in inner-city residences of New York City and Los Angeles. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2004;14(Suppl 1):S95-S109.||
Supplemental Keywords:air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’ s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Physical Processes, Children's Health, genetic susceptability, Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Policy, Biology, copollutant exposures, health effects, sensitive populations, urban air, atmospheric particulate matter, aldehydes, fine particles, PM 2.5, long term exposure, inhaled pollutants, acute lung injury, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, VOCs, air pollution, children, susceptible subpopulations, cardiac arrest, New York, cardiopulmonary response, chronic health effects, human exposure, Los Angeles, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, assessment of exposure, Acute health effects, indoor air, inhaled, human susceptibility, children's environmental health, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), acute exposure, air quality, human health risk, toxics, environmental hazard exposures, air contaminant exposure, co-pollutants
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R824834 Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children