2003 Progress Report: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter SpeciesEPA Grant Number: R828678C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
Investigators: Weisel, Clifford P. , Colome, Steven D. , Morandi, Maria T. , Turpin, Barbara , Spektor, Dalia , Zhang, Junfeng , Stock, Tom
Institution: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2002 through January 31, 2003
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research
The Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) in response to RFA 96-01. The project comprised three studies initially independently funded:
- A study funded by NUATRC with Dr. Clifford Weisel at the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) as principal investigator;
- A study funded by the Health Effects Institute (HEI) with Dr. Jim Zhang of EOHSI as principal investigator; and
- A study funded by HEI with Dr. Barbara Turpin of Rutgers University as principal investigator.
Because the two HEI studies complemented and added to the initial study funded by NUATRC, both organizations have treated the three studies as one so that the results can be reported in a coherent manner.
The overall objectives of the RIOPA study were to:
(1) Investigate the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyl compounds, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and in-vehicle concentrations of carbonyl compounds; and
(2) Quantify the outdoor contribution to indoor and personal air concentrations of the measured pollutants.
A secondary objective of the study was to make paired measurements in the adults and children to determine whether air toxic exposure estimates of adults could be used for children.
The specific aims of the study were to:
(1) Compare indoor, outdoor, and personal air (and in-vehicle for carbonyl compounds) concentrations of the pollutants measured in the RIOPA.
(2) Examine the effects of a number of variables (e.g., season, house type, city/state) on measured concentrations and indoor/outdoor relationships.
(3) Quantify the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants.
(4) Determine indoor source strengths of the measured pollutants that are primarily generated indoors.
The study involved 100 homes with nonsmoking participants in each of the 3 urban centers. These three geographically distinct locations are expected to have different climates and housing characteristics. Most participating homes were measured twice during two different seasons to obtain a wide distribution of air exchange rate.
The study measured indoor and outdoor air concentrations of VOCs, aldehydes, respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), and air exchange rates (AER), as well as personal exposure in adults and children in a set of two 48-hour sampling periods in the 3 distinct urban centers. In-vehicle exposure to aldehydes was measured for residents of these homes. In addition, the fine particulate matter was speciated for chemical composition and source apportionment.
The study is in compliance with Institutional Review Boards of the University of Dentistry and Medicine of New Jersey (UDMNJ), Rutgers University, and the University of Texas. Human consent procedures met governmental guidelines. The study is also in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures as per NUATRC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines.
The fieldwork for the study was completed in February 2001. Sample analyses were completed between March-May 2001. HEI and NUATRC received a Draft Final Report for the RIOPA study in March 2002. The Draft Final Report was reviewed by a team of external peer-reviewers and the HEI and NUATRC Special Review Panel. A Revised Final Report was received by the Center in April 2003 which integrated responses to the external and internal reviews. The report underwent a second review by a team of external peer-reviewers and the Special Review Panel. A final revised version of the report was received in January 2004 and is currently being reviewed by the HEI and NUATRC Special Review Panel for final approval. In order to complete final approval, scientific editing, and publication, the study has been granted a no-cost extension through August 2004.
The results for the study show that personal and indoor air concentrations of many measured VOCs and carbonyl compounds were dominated by indoor sources. Several measured species had personal concentrations higher than either indoor or outdoor concentrations, indicating the presence of some sources closely related to personal activities. Some species had no significant indoor sources in the majority of the RIOPA homes, and thus indoor concentrations were mainly determined by outdoor concentrations in these homes. The range of distributions of air concentrations measured for the VOCs, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, PM2.5, and AER were generally consistent with values reported previously in the literature.
The study made simultaneous measurements of indoor concentrations, outdoor concentrations, AER, and room volumes. This enabled the investigators to use a mass balance model, under the steady-state approximation, to examine the relative contributions of outdoor and indoor sources to measured indoor concentrations on a home-by-home basis. Estimated indoor source strengths exhibited large home-to-home variations for VOCs and carbonyl compounds. The source strengths data derived from hundreds of RIOPA homes contribute to the literature of air toxics exposure. These estimates present, for the first time for many compounds, a cohesive set of measurements across a range of air toxics in paired indoor, outdoor, and personal samples along with AER and questionnaire results. These can be used for future indoor air quality analyses.
- Final approval of the Revised Final Report.
- Scientific editing of the report.
- Publication of the report.
Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format
|Other subproject views:||All 40 publications||21 publications in selected types||All 19 journal articles|
|Other center views:||All 144 publications||62 publications in selected types||All 53 journal articles|
||Naumova YY, Eisenreich SJ, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Colome SD, Totten LA, Stock TH, Winer AM, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Shendell D, Jones J, Maberti S, Wall SJ. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor and outdoor air of three cities in the U.S. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2552-2559.||
||Weisel CP. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):527-537.||
||Zhang J, Zhang L, Fan Z, Ilacqua V. Development of the personal aldehydes and ketones sampler based upon DNSH derivatization on solid sorbent. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(12):2601-2607.||
Supplemental Keywords:RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, air pollutants, fine particles, PM 2.5, acute lung injury, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, human exposure, industrial air pollution, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, residential air exchange rates, Acute health effects, inhaled, indoor/outdoor relationships, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), acute exposure, atmospheric chemistry, human health risk
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R824834 Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children