2002 Progress Report: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

EPA Grant Number: R828678C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
Investigators: Weisel, Clifford P. , Colome, Steven D. , Morandi, Maria T. , Turpin, Barbara , Spektor, Dalia , Zhang, Junfeng , Stock, Tom
Institution: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2001 through January 31, 2002
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was funded by the National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC). The project now jointly funded with the Health Effects Institute (HEI) is a large urban air toxics project that is comprised of three studies initially independently funded: (1) a study funded by NUATRC with Dr. Clifford Weisel at Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) as principal investigator; (2) a study funded by HEI with Dr. Jim Zhang of EOHSI as Principal Investigator; and (3) a study funded by HEI with Dr. Barbara Turpin of Rutgers University as Principal Investigator.

Because the two HEI studies complemented and added to the initial study funded by NUATRC, staff from both organizations attempted to treat the three studies as one so that the results will be reported in a coherent way.

The objectives of the RIOPA project test the hypothesis that personal exposure to air toxics is influenced by outdoor sources of these air toxics. The major hypotheses to be tested are: (1) a measurable and significant portion of the indoor air concentrations, personal exposures, and breath concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5) are contributed by outdoor sources; and (2) residential air exchange rates (AER) are a major determinant of the influence of outdoor air concentration on indoor air and personal exposure.

A secondary objective of this project is to make paired measurements in the adults (100 per city) and children (50 per city) to determine whether air toxic exposure estimates of adults could be used for children.

The study involves 100 homes and 150 individuals (100 adults and 50 children) in each of the three urban centers with different air pollution source profiles: Los Angeles, CA, is dominated by mobile sources; Houston, TX, is dominated by industrial point sources; and Elizabeth, NJ, includes a mixture of mobile and point sources.

The study measures indoor and outdoor air concentrations of VOCs, aldehydes, respirable PM2.5, and AER, as well as personal exposure in adults and children, in a set of two 48-hour sampling periods in the three distinct urban centers. In-vehicle exposure to aldehydes will be measured for residents of these homes. In addition, the fine PM will be speciated for chemical composition and source apportionment.

Two major specific objectives of this project are to: (1) estimate the fraction that outdoor sources contribute to indoor and personal air concentrations of VOCs, aldehydes, and PM2.5 in three distinct major urban centers: Los Angeles, CA, Houston, TX, and Elizabeth/Bayonne NJ; and (2) estimate the exposures to populations living in the three urban centers from outdoor toxic air emissions, using: (a) outdoor concentrations and AER reported in the literature for these areas; and (b) relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations and AER determined in this study.

Progress Summary:

This project is in compliance with Institutional Review Boards of the University of Dentistry and Medicine of New Jersey (UDMNJ), Rutgers University, and the University of Texas. Human consent procedures met governmental guidelines. This study provided and followed appropriate quality asurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures.

All field work was completed in February 2001. Sample analyses were completed between March-May 2001. In June 2001, an Interim Report responding to HEI-NUATRC panel's comments of the revised data analysis plan was received.

HEI and the NUATRC received a Draft Final Report for the RIOPA study on March 6, 2002. The Draft Final Report was reviewed by a team of external peer reviewers and the HEI and NUATRC Special Review Panel. Recommendations for revisions from these reviews were provided to the investigators. A revised report is expected in February 2003.

The RIOPA study has produced, for the first time, a very rich and comprehensive data set on personal exposures to a suite of air toxics. The data set not only has great implications for further research in this area, but also potentially for air regulation. Because of the potential application of the data in the regulatory process, the NUATRC and HEI planned an external QA/QC audit of the RIOPA study. An initial audit for the study was conducted during 2000. As in the case of all studies, an exit audit will be needed to confirm the results and ascertain compliance with the QA procedures. The exit audit conducted jointly with HEI will include QA review of the RIOPA data set at all three sites (New Jersey, California, and Texas) and the Final Report. The audit was due upon receipt of the RIOPA revised report, initially due in December 2002. It now will be conducted upon receipt of the report in February 2003.

The NUATRC has granted a no-cost extension for the study through July 2003 to complete peer review of the revised report, an exit audit of the RIOPA data set and final report, and publication of the report.

To date, the study has produced two peer-reviewed manuscripts (see Publications/Presentations). In the manuscript entitled "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Indoor and Outdoor Air of Three Cities in the US," the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles of 3-4 ring PAHs were not significantly different in the outdoor samples of the three cities, while profiles of 5-7 ring PAHs from these cities were significantly different, suggesting different dominant PAH sources. Indoor to outdoor PAH ratios showed that indoor sources had a significant effect on 3-4 ring PAHs and outdoor sources dominated the indoor concentrations of 5-7 ring PAHs. In the paper entitled "Assessing Exposure to Air Toxics Relative to Asthma," Dr. Weisel discusses the need to determine where the exposure occurs, and the source contribution for each air toxic and target population separately when evaluating potential effects of air toxics on asthma or other adverse health effects. Although ambient emissions contribute to exposure of some air toxics indoors as well as outdoors, this was not true for all of the air toxics, especially for higher end exposure to many VOCs.

Future Activities:

The exit audit will be conducted after receipt of the revised RIOPA Final Report, which is now due on February 28, 2003. The revised Final Report then will be reviewed by external peer reviewers and the HEI/NUATRC Special Review Panel.


Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 40 publications 21 publications in selected types All 19 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Naumova YY, Eisenreich SJ, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Colome SD, Totten LA, Stock TH, Winer AM, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Shendell D, Jones J, Maberti S, Wall SJ. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor and outdoor air of three cities in the U.S. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2552-2559. R828678C006 (2002)
R828678C006 (2003)
R828678C006 (2004)
R828678C006 (2006)
R828678C006 (2007)
R828678C006 (Final)
R828678C016 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Weisel CP. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):527-537. R828678C006 (2002)
    R828678C006 (2003)
    R828678C006 (2004)
    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Other: ResearchGate - Abstract & Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air toxics, air pollution, indoor air, personal exposure, RIOPA study, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, respirable PM, particulate matter, PM2.5., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, air pollutants, fine particles, PM 2.5, acute lung injury, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, human exposure, industrial air pollution, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, residential air exchange rates, Acute health effects, inhaled, indoor/outdoor relationships, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), acute exposure, atmospheric chemistry, human health risk

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit
    http://www.eohsi.rutgers.edu/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children