2004 Progress Report: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane

EPA Grant Number: R828678C010
Subproject: this is subproject number 010 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
Investigators: Claiborn, Candis , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Larsen, Timothy
Institution: Washington State University , University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: May 1, 1999 through June 30, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2003 through June 30, 2004
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) toxic metals (Sb, As, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Se, Cd, and Ni) and transition metals (Ti, V, and Fe), and several health endpoints that include: emergency department visits for asthma, hospital admissions for asthma and other respiratory outcomes, and total respiratory mortality. This was to be accomplished using time-series and source apportionment methods on a Spokane, WA, daily data set some 7 years long. The investigators analyzed archived daily fine and course PM samples collected in Spokane over 4 years (1995-1998) via a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grant and added to this 3 years’ worth of samples that were collected during the period of the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) support. Thus, a total of 7 years’ worth of data was available for analysis. PM metals content on both archived samples and samples collected during this period of support was determined via a combination of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrument neutron activation (INAA). These INAA analyses were conducted via support from EPA. Susceptible populations that were targeted for study include both elderly and non-elderly age groups and individuals with pre-existing chronic conditions such as asthma. Health outcomes that were examined included: (1) hospital admissions for respiratory or cardiovascular causes only; for both causes; and for specific respiratory cause (e.g., asthma); both elderly and non-elderly subgroups were monitored; (2) emergency room visits for asthma; and (3) respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in elderly and non-elderly.

Progress Summary:

The study was funded in response to NUATRC Request for Applications (RFA) 98-02, “Contribution of Metals in Ambient Particles to Particulate Associated Health Effects.” A no-cost extension has been granted through June 30, 2005, to complete analyses of the full data set and to complete the final report. The study is in compliance with the Institutional Review Board of Washington State University. The project also is in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures as per NUATRC and EPA guidelines. Work accomplished during the period of this report is discussed below.

Seven and one-half years’ worth of daily samples have been collected in Spokane (January 1, 1995 to May 15, 2002). Six and three-quarters years’ worth of samples have been analyzed using EDXRF. Approximately 1,800 samples have been analyzed with instrument neutron activation analysis INAA.

To identify point source impacts from various wind directions, analyses were conducted using potential source contribution factor. The results agreed with the reported location of the point sources.

The particulate data also were analyzed for source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance version 8 receptor model 8. The data were also analyzed using Unmix. To date, data from January 1, 1995 to December 13, 1997 have been examined. The entire data set currently is being analyzed.

Three-time series analyses were constructed to examine associations between emergency room (ER) visits, hospital admits, and mortality in Spokane with particulate exposure data.

Results from analyses of partial data set indicated no associations between any size fraction of PM (10, 2.5, or 1) or carbon monoxide (CO) and cardiac hospital admissions or mortality.

Initial analyses of all ER visits for acute respiratory tract infections showed smaller relative risks at 0- to 1-day lags, and larger associations at 2- to 3-day lags for CO. Similar but less pronounced trends of association with PM1 and PM2.5 were observed. When respiratory ER visits were broken down into subcategories, a 1 ppm increase in CO at 3-day lag was associated with a 1.06-fold increase in ER visits for asthma. No association was found between PM or CO and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pneumonia. No significant associations were found with CO or any size fraction of PM for hospital admissions with the strongest associations for all respiratory hospital admissions found at 3-day lag for PM1 and PM2.5.

Initial results from source apportionment studies indicated that biomass burning was the major source of PM2.5. Secondary aerosol is pronounced in winter and associated with mobile PM2.5 as well as sulfur dioxide. Soil impacts on PM2.5 are relatively minor, but are readily detectable. PM sources are not all intercorrelated; chemical constituents are not expected to be either.

A draft final report was received in April 2004 and reviewed by the Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) subgroup committee members. The report was found to lack detail, contained inadequate data analysis, and was not suitable for external review. The SAP subgroup recommended further analysis of the data and major revision of the report.

Future Activities:

The investigators will submit a draft of the final report. It will be reviewed both internally and externally by peer reviewers, and then will be published.


Journal Articles on this Report : 6 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 13 publications 7 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Claiborn CS, Larson T, Sheppard L. Testing the metals hypothesis in Spokane, Washington. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):547-552. R828678C010 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Finn D, Rumburg B, Claiborn C, Bamesberger L, Siems WF, Koenig J, Larson T, Norris G. Sampling artifacts from the use of denuder tubes with glycerol based coatings in the measurement of atmospheric particulate matter. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(1):40-44. R828678C010 (2001)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Larson TV, Hopke PK, Slaughter C, Sheppard LE, Claiborn C. Source identification of PM2.5 in an arid Northwest U.S. city by positive matrix factorization. Atmospheric Research 2003;66(4):291-305. R828678C010 (2003)
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract and Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ResearchGate - Abstract & Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Rumburg B, Alldredge R, Claiborn C. Statistical distributions of particulate matter and the error associated with sampling frequency. Atmospheric Environment 2001;35(16):2907-2920. R828678C010 (2001)
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  • Journal Article Slaughter JC, Kim E, Sheppard L, Sullivan JH, Larson TV, Claiborn C. Association between particulate matter and emergency room visits, hospital admissions and mortality in Spokane, Washington. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):153-159. R828678C010 (2003)
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  • Abstract: JESEE-Abstract & Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ResearchGate - Abstract & Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Vaughan JK, Claiborn C, Finn D. April 1998 Asian dust event over the Columbia Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 2001;106(D16):18381-18402. R828678C010 (2001)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Chemicals, Epidemiology, State, Air Pollution Effects, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, health effects, urban air, urban air quality, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, air pollutants, human health effects, atmospheric particles, aerosol particles, air sampling pump, chemical composition, Washington (WA), air sampling, chemical detection techniques, human exposure, environmental contaminants, lung inflamation, particulate exposure, personal cascade impactor sampler, urban air pollution, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), human health, cardiovascular disease, heavy metals, human health risk, biomarker

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children