2002 Progress Report: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane

EPA Grant Number: R828678C010
Subproject: this is subproject number 010 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
Investigators: Claiborn, Candis , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Larsen, Timothy
Institution: Washington State University , University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: May 1, 1999 through June 30, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2001 through June 30, 2002
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research


The overall objectives of this research project are to determine associations between cardiovascular, respiratory outcomes, and particulate toxic and transition metals in Spokane, WA, and apportion particulate metals to relative sources.

The specific objective of this research project is to evaluate the associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) toxic metals (Sb, As, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Se, Cd, and Ni) and transition metals (Ti, V, and Fe), and several health endpoints that include emergency department (ED) visits for asthma, hospital admissions for asthma and other respiratory outcomes, and total respiratory mortality. This is to be accomplished using time-series and source apportionment methods on a Spokane, WA, daily data set that covers approximately 7 years. The investigators will analyze archived daily fine and course particulate samples collected in Spokane over 4 years (1995-1998)-these samples were collected via a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grant-and another 3 year's worth of samples that will be collected during the period of National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) support. Thus, a total of 7 years of data will be available for analysis. PM metals content on both archived samples and samples collected during this period of support will be determined via a combination of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrument neutron activation (INAA). These INAA analyses will be conducted via support from the EPA. Susceptible populations that will be targeted for study will include both elderly and nonelderly age groups and individuals with pre-existing chronic conditions such as asthma. Health outcomes to be examined will include: (1) hospital admissions for respiratory or cardiovascular causes only, for both causes, and for specific respiratory cause (e.g., asthma), and both elderly and nonelderly subgroups will be monitored; (2) emergency room visits for asthma; and (3) respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in elderly and nonelderly.

Progress Summary:

This research project was funded in response to NUATRC Request for Applications 98-02, "Contribution of Metals in Ambient Particles to Particulate Associated Health Effects." This project is in compliance with the Institutional Review Board of Washington State University (WSU). The study provided and followed appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures.

Work accomplished during the period of this report is discussed below:

· Daily samples have been collected in Spokane, WA (January 1, 1995 to May 15, 2002) for 90 months (7.5 years).

· Samples collected over a period of 81 months (6.75 years) have been analyzed using EDXRF. Spectra have been generated for all the samples, but final elemental analyses are not complete for all samples.

· Early in this project, the EPA (which is offering pro bono services to WSU) began experiencing problems and delays in their XRF laboratory, and these, coupled with the significant increase in sample submittals to the laboratory due to the increased interest in PM2.5 chemical characterization, led to a large backlog of the Principal Investigator's (PI) samples for XRF analysis. As a possible solution to this backlog, the EPA Region 10 Office (in Seattle) "donated" a prototype Jordan Valley EDXRF instrument to WSU. This allowed the PIs to progress with the samples for neutron activation analysis, and all backlogged EDXRF samples now have been analyzed.

· Approximately 1,800 samples have been analyzed with INAA.

· Health data continue to be collected on a regular basis.

· A master database was created in Microsoft Access that contains all the particulate, air pollution, meteorology, and heath data.

· To identify point source impacts from various wind directions, analyses were conducted using potential source contribution factor (PSCF). The results were consistent with the reported location of the point sources.

· The particulate data also were analyzed using the Chemical Mass Balance version 8 receptor model 8. The results were similar to positive matrix factorization (PMF).

· Three time series analyses were constructed to examine associations between emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and mortality in Spokane with particulate exposure data.

· To date, emergency room visit data have been collected through September 2001 for two of the Spokane hospitals, and through June 2001 for the other two. Hospital and mortality data are updated yearly in August, with an 18 month lag. The PIs have hospital admissions data through 2000 and mortality data through 1999.

· Preliminary results indicated no associations between any size fraction of PM (PM10, PM2.5 or PM1) and cardiac hospital admissions or mortality.

· Some associations of emergency room visits for acute respiratory tract infections and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia with PM1 and PM2.5 at 2- and 3-day lags were observed.

Future Activities:

Plans for Year 4 of the project include completing the sample analyses, collecting the health data, and completing the assembly of the master data file. The source apportionment methods will be enhanced using the results from the INAA analyses, and further health analyses will be conducted. Individual metals will be used as exposure variables, as well as sources identified by the source apportionment analyses. The PMF method will be repeated incorporating the INAA metals species data to determine whether additional sources can be distinguished. Lastly, we will complete the Final Report for the project, which is due in August 2003.

Journal Articles on this Report : 1 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 13 publications 7 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Claiborn CS, Larson T, Sheppard L. Testing the metals hypothesis in Spokane, Washington. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):547-552. R828678C010 (2002)
R828678C010 (2003)
R828678C010 (2004)
R828678C010 (2005)
R828678C010 (2006)
R828678C010 (2007)
R828678C010 (Final)
R827355 (2001)
R827355 (Final)
R827355C008 (2002)
R827355C008 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ResearchGate - Abstract & Full Text PDF
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    urban, air pollution, metals, particulate matter, PM, asthma, respiratory disease, exposure, air, geographic area, health, biochemistry, chemicals, engineering, chemistry, physics, environmental monitoring, epidemiology, health risk assessment, physical processes, state, air toxics, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, Washington, WA, aerosol particles, air pollutants, air sampling, air sampling pump, airborne urban contaminants, atmospheric particles, biomarker, cardiovascular disease, chemical composition, chemical detection techniques, environmental contaminants, exposure, health effects, heavy metals, human exposure, human health, human health effects, human health risk, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler, PCIS, urban air, urban air pollution., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Chemicals, Epidemiology, State, Air Pollution Effects, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, health effects, urban air, urban air quality, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, air pollutants, human health effects, atmospheric particles, aerosol particles, air sampling pump, chemical composition, Washington (WA), air sampling, chemical detection techniques, human exposure, environmental contaminants, lung inflamation, particulate exposure, personal cascade impactor sampler, urban air pollution, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), human health, cardiovascular disease, heavy metals, human health risk, biomarker

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children