Industrial Implementation of the P2 Framework

EPA Grant Number: R825370C075
Subproject: this is subproject number 075 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825370
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)
Center Director: Crittenden, John C.
Title: Industrial Implementation of the P2 Framework
Investigators: Bulloch, John L. , Crittenden, John C. , Selzer, Volker H. , Hand, David W.
Institution: Michigan Technological University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 1, 1999
RFA: Exploratory Environmental Research Centers (1992) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) , Targeted Research


The scope of this research activity is to promote U.S. EPA developed toxicological, environmental, and ecological estimation software for the use in industry. More specifically, the two main objectives of this project are:

1) to make a wide variety of industrial organizations aware of the Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework (P2 Framework) and CenCITT's software P2 tools, and
2) to assist several companies (primarily related to chemical manufacturing industries, but also other sectors) in successfully using the P2 Framework as an information resource in risk assessment and in identifying pollution prevention opportunities.


The Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework (P2 Framework) is a document that contains many of OPPT's most important computer-based methods for assessing risk based on chemical structure. The P2 Framework provides important risk-related information not previously available. Its purpose is to provide information that can inform decision making and help promote the design, development, and application of safer chemicals and processes. The document describes each assessment methodology and the importance of the data generated, and provides case studies showing how methods can be used collectively to answer complicated risk assessment questions and identify pollution prevention opportunities. The P2 Framework, as currently constructed, does not address all biological endpoints. It is a screening-level methodology that is of value when chemical-specific data are lacking.

The principal investigators of this project have identified the P2 Framework tools to be particularly beneficial in three areas: 1) on the side of the chemical manufacturer early on in the development of a new chemical (basic R&D work), 2) facilitating the PMN process by understanding risk estimations, and 3) on the side of the chemical formulators choosing between different chemicals based on risk and environmental properties.

Specific tasks of this activity include presenting the software tools to industry and identifying partners for pilot studies. During the pilot study period the principal investigators assist industry in the use of the software tools through their own calculations and technical expertise. Concluding a test period, the industrial partner and CenCITT staff are to assess the P2 and potential economic effectiveness of the software tools. Suggestions for improvement are encouraged.

Current achievements and results towards project deliverables include:
· CenCITT has interacted with eight organizations as part of the P2 Framework Assessment Partnership.
· CenCITT staff has made calculations for over 80 molecules and submitted them to corporate partners mostly in the form of Confidential Business Reports (based on their confidential submittals of the "problem" molecules).
· CenCITT has developed qualitative and quantitative area resolute multi-objective plots (scaled and normalized) to demonstrate selected environmental scenarios of interest to less technically inclined personnel.
· CenCITT has recently begun using the PBT-Profiler (Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity) as part of this project.
· Extensive discussions have been initiated with the following companies regarding the use of the P2 Framework or the PBT Profiler: Herman Miller (Furniture Manufacturer, Coatings), Ashland Chemicals (Pre-Polymers, Petroleum Products, and Fine Chemicals), C. K. Witco (Organo-Silicone Compounds, problem solving with PMNs), and the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI).

Expected Results:

During the last two decades the U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) has developed computer-based methods that derive important risk assessment information based on the atomic connectivity of organic chemicals. These methods provide information on carcinogenicity, toxicity to aquatic organisms, worker and general population exposures, bioconcentration, and environmental fate, among other data. OPPT routinely uses these methods to highlight chemicals of concern, to identify safer substitutes, and to reduce or eliminate risks.

Although originally developed by U.S. EPA to estimate the properties of chemicals submitted under the Pre-Manufacture Notice (PMN) approval process, EPA has recently considered using these tools for pollution prevention. It is expect that through this project the investigators will promote these tools as beta test versions to industry, in order to identify their applicability, weaknesses, and strengths. Further, they will utilize this opportunity to promote CenCITT's software P2 tools.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this subproject: View all 7 publications for this subprojectView all 157 publications for this center

Supplemental Keywords:

technology for sustainable environment, environmental chemistry, clean technology, environmental engineering, pollution prevention, cleaner production, toxicology, computing technology, chemical manufacturing, risk assessment, Sustainable industry, human health risk, human exposure., RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Sustainable Industry/Business, cleaner production/pollution prevention, Sustainable Environment, Technology for Sustainable Environment, computing technology, Economics and Business, pollution prevention, Environmental Engineering, in-process changes, in-process waste minimization, industrial design for environment, industrial process design, cleaner production, environmentally conscious manufacturing, green design, pollution prevention design tool, pollution prevention assessment, clean technology, physico-chemical properties, computer science, Clean Process Advisory System (CPAS), CPAS, industrial process, process modification, chemical manufacturing, industry pollution prevention research, chemical properties tool, chemical processing, information technology, innovative technology, industrial innovations, outreach and education, green technology

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 1997
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R825370    EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R825370C032 Means for Producing an Entirely New Generation of Lignin-Based Plastics
    R825370C042 Environmentally Conscious Design for Construction
    R825370C046 Clean Process Advisory System (CPAS) Core Activities
    R825370C048 Investigation of the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol in a Simulated Countercurrent Moving Bed Reactor
    R825370C054 Predictive Tool for Ultrafiltration Performance
    R825370C055 Heuristic Reactor Design for Clean Synthesis and Processing - Separative Reactors
    R825370C056 Characterization of Selective Solid Acid Catalysts Towards the Rational Design of Catalytic Reactions
    R825370C057 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Prediction of Processing Waste Streams for Discrete Products
    R825370C064 The Physical Properties Management System (PPMS™): A P2 Engineering Aid to Support Process Design and Analysis
    R825370C065 Development and Testing of Pollution Prevention Design Aids for Process Analysis and Decision Making
    R825370C066 Design Tools for Chemical Process Safety: Accident Probability
    R825370C067 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Design for Disassembly (DFD) in De-Manufacturing of Products
    R825370C068 An Economic Comparison of Wet and Dry Machining
    R825370C069 In-Line Copper Recovery Technology
    R825370C070 Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid
    R825370C071 Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers from Industrial Wastewater
    R825370C072 Tin Zeolites for Partial Oxidation Catalysis
    R825370C073 Development of a High Performance Photocatalytic Reactor System for the Production of Methanol from Methane in the Gas Phase
    R825370C074 Recovery of Waste Polymer Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Metal Casting Industry
    R825370C075 Industrial Implementation of the P2 Framework
    R825370C076 Establishing Automated Linkages Between Existing P2-Related Software Design Tools
    R825370C077 Integrated Applications of the Clean Process Advisory System to P2-Conscious Process Analysis and Improvement
    R825370C078 Development of Environmental Indices for Green Chemical Production and Use