An Economic Comparison of Wet and Dry Machining

EPA Grant Number: R825370C068
Subproject: this is subproject number 068 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825370
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)
Center Director: Crittenden, John C.
Title: An Economic Comparison of Wet and Dry Machining
Investigators: King, Nathan C. , Basu, Soumitra , Sutherland, John
Institution: Michigan Technological University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 1, 1999
RFA: Exploratory Environmental Research Centers (1992) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) , Targeted Research

Objective:

The goal of this project is to perform an economic analysis of both wet and dry machining. In doing so, the costs associated with wet and dry machining are to be compared in detail by establishing a cost template. Such a template will provide a tool which will allow industry to determine whether wet or dry machining is more cost effective for a particular application.

Approach:

This research is an effort to create a template that can be used by industry to determine whether wet or dry machining is more cost effective for a particular application. By considering all related costs, such a tool can promote dry machining in cases where it is more economically feasible than wet machining, thus reducing the amount of cutting fluid used and its effect on the environment.

All production costs involved in both wet and dry machining will be included in a cost spreadsheet. The effects of different variables on cost and profit will be considered. Also in order to show how such a spreadsheet can be used, a case study will be performed using the turning of gray cast iron as an example.

A spreadsheet has been designed in which all the costs associated with both wet and dry machining are itemized and compared in detail. Such a template not only determines whether wet or dry machining is more cost effective for a particular application, but also provides a means to understand which costs play the largest roles.

In order to obtain specific values to be used along with the spreadsheet, a set of tool life experiments are being conducted to compare tool life and product quality in both the wet and dry turning of gray cast iron. The values obtained in these experiments can then be inserted into the spreadsheet to give a comparison for this specific application. In order to obtain an understanding of the health effects associated with wet and dry machining, mass concentration measurements of both the cutting fluid mist produced in wet machining and the dust produced in dry machining are being recorded. The tool life experiments are currently in progress but are nearing completion.

Expected Results:

The use of cutting fluid in machining operations not only poses a significant health risk to workers but creates additional environmental problems as well. From an industrial standpoint, the disposal of spent cutting fluid can be very costly and can lead to further health and environmental liabilities. From an environmental perspective, disposal of this fluid can cause significant land and water pollution.

Due to the rising costs associated with coolant use, dry machining is becoming more and more cost effective. Often manufacturers continue to use wet machining without performing a detailed cost comparison. This research is expected to result in a template that can be used by industry to determine whether wet or dry machining is more cost effective for a particular application. By considering all related costs, such a tool can promote dry machining in cases where it is more economically feasible than wet machining, thus reducing the amount of cutting fluid used and its effect on the environment.

Supplemental Keywords:

technology for sustainable environment, environmental chemistry, clean technology, environmental engineering, risk assessment, dry machining, pollution prevention, cleaner production, occupational safety, cost benefit analysis., RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Sustainable Industry/Business, cleaner production/pollution prevention, computing technology, Economics and Business, pollution prevention, Environmental Engineering, in-process changes, life cycle analysis, in-process waste minimization, industrial design for environment, industrial process design, chemical process safety, occupational safety, cleaner production, dry machining, environmentally conscious manufacturing, green design, pollution prevention design tool, environmentally friendly technology, decision making, clean technology, physico-chemical properties, computer science, cost benefit, Clean Process Advisory System (CPAS), CPAS, industrial process, process modification, industry pollution prevention research, information technology, innovative technology, life cycle assessment, industrial innovations, outreach and education, green technology, environmentally conscious design, decision support tool

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 1997
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R825370    EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R825370C032 Means for Producing an Entirely New Generation of Lignin-Based Plastics
    R825370C042 Environmentally Conscious Design for Construction
    R825370C046 Clean Process Advisory System (CPAS) Core Activities
    R825370C048 Investigation of the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol in a Simulated Countercurrent Moving Bed Reactor
    R825370C054 Predictive Tool for Ultrafiltration Performance
    R825370C055 Heuristic Reactor Design for Clean Synthesis and Processing - Separative Reactors
    R825370C056 Characterization of Selective Solid Acid Catalysts Towards the Rational Design of Catalytic Reactions
    R825370C057 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Prediction of Processing Waste Streams for Discrete Products
    R825370C064 The Physical Properties Management System (PPMS™): A P2 Engineering Aid to Support Process Design and Analysis
    R825370C065 Development and Testing of Pollution Prevention Design Aids for Process Analysis and Decision Making
    R825370C066 Design Tools for Chemical Process Safety: Accident Probability
    R825370C067 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Design for Disassembly (DFD) in De-Manufacturing of Products
    R825370C068 An Economic Comparison of Wet and Dry Machining
    R825370C069 In-Line Copper Recovery Technology
    R825370C070 Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid
    R825370C071 Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers from Industrial Wastewater
    R825370C072 Tin Zeolites for Partial Oxidation Catalysis
    R825370C073 Development of a High Performance Photocatalytic Reactor System for the Production of Methanol from Methane in the Gas Phase
    R825370C074 Recovery of Waste Polymer Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Metal Casting Industry
    R825370C075 Industrial Implementation of the P2 Framework
    R825370C076 Establishing Automated Linkages Between Existing P2-Related Software Design Tools
    R825370C077 Integrated Applications of the Clean Process Advisory System to P2-Conscious Process Analysis and Improvement
    R825370C078 Development of Environmental Indices for Green Chemical Production and Use