2003 Progress Report: Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants

EPA Grant Number: R827353C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827353
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
Investigators: Koutrakis, Petros
Current Investigators: Koutrakis, Petros , Suh, Helen H. , Brown, Kathleen Ward , Sarnat, Jeremy
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2003 through May 31, 2004
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The objectives of this research project are to: (1) estimate the contribution of particles of outdoor and indoor origin to personal particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures; (2) examine the potential for confounding by gaseous pollutants to affect epidemiological study results; and (3) investigate the ability of particles to penetrate from outdoor to indoor environments. To date, we have published several papers addressing these issues (Chang, et al., 2000; Long, et al., 2000; Sarnat, et. al., 2000; Sarnat, et al., 2001; Sarnat, et al., 2002).

This is one of 10 projects funded by the Center. The progress for the other nine projects is reported separately (see reports for R827353C002 through R827353C011).

Progress Summary:

Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants

A central objective of this research project has been the examination of relationships between ambient particles and gases and corresponding personal exposures. During Year 5 of the project, we continued our analysis of data from the Boston and Baltimore panel studies. Pooling results from both locations, we assessed whether the contribution of ambient particles on personal exposures varied by city, season, and cohort. No cohort effect was found on the attenuation factors, which suggests that subjects from each cohort (i.e., seniors, children, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients) were exposed to the same fraction of ambient PM2.5, given the same concentrations of ambient PM2.5. A manuscript (Brown, et al., in preparation, 2004) detailing these findings currently is being prepared for publication.

In a recent paper, we analyzed data from a Baltimore multiple pollutant exposure assessment to examine the role of ambient pollutant concentrations in PM2.5 epidemiologic models (Sarnat, et al., 2001). Because the Baltimore analysis was the first to examine the relationships between personal exposures and ambient concentrations for PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants, it was important to conduct a similar analysis for other cities. During Year 5 of the project, we conducted an analysis that included personal exposure and ambient concentration multipollutant data from the Boston panel study. Results from the Boston analysis, which includes data from Baltimore and Boston (see Figure 1), provide further evidence that the ambient gaseous pollutant concentrations are better surrogates of personal PM2.5 exposures, especially personal exposures to PM2.5 of ambient origin, than their respective personal exposures. These findings suggest that using ambient gas concentrations in multiple-pollutant health effects models along with PM2.5 may not be appropriate because both the ambient gaseous and PM2.5 concentrations are serving as surrogates for PM2.5 exposures. In addition, the robustness of these findings was demonstrated by using various analytical methods and model structures. A manuscript entitled, "Relationships Among Personal Exposures and Ambient Concentrations of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants and Their Implications for Particle Health Effects Studies," has been accepted for publication in Epidemiology, and currently is in press (Sarnat, et al., in press, 2004).

Figure 1. A Summary of the Results From Both Locations

Future Activities:

We will continue to: (1) estimate the contribution of particles of outdoor and indoor origin to personal PM2.5 exposures; (2) examine the potential for confounding by gaseous pollutants to affect epidemiological study results; and (3) investigate the ability of particles to penetrate from outdoor to indoor environments.


Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 6 publications 6 publications in selected types All 6 journal articles
Other center views: All 200 publications 198 publications in selected types All 197 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Sarnat JA, Koutrakis P, Suh HH. Assessing the relationship between personal particulate and gaseous exposures of senior citizens living in Baltimore, MD. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2000;50(7):1184-1198. R827353 (Final)
R827353C001 (2000)
R827353C001 (2001)
R827353C001 (2002)
R827353C001 (2003)
R827353C001 (2004)
R827353C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Sarnat JA, Brown KW, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Koutrakis P. Ambient gas concentrations and personal particulate matter exposures:implications for studying the health effects of particles. Epidemiology 2005;16(3):385-395. R827353 (Final)
    R827353C001 (2003)
    R827353C001 (2004)
    R827353C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Epidemiology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Epidemiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Epidemiology-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    exposure, health effects, susceptibility, metals, public policy, biology, engineering, epidemiology, toxicology, environmental chemistry, monitoring, air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, ambient air, ambient air monitoring, ambient air quality, ambient measurement methods, ambient monitoring, ambient particle health effects, ambient particles, animal inhalation study, assessment of exposure, biological mechanism, biological response, cardiopulmonary, cardiopulmonary response, cardiovascular disease, chemical exposure, children, developmental effects, dosimetry, environmental health hazard, exposure and effects, genetic susceptibility, health risks, human exposure, human health, human health effects, human health risk, human susceptibility, indoor air quality, indoor exposure, inhalation, inhalation toxicology, inhaled particles, lead, measurement methods, particle exposure, particulate exposure, particulates, pulmonary, pulmonary disease, respiratory, respiratory disease, risk assessment, sensitive populations, stratospheric ozone., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Air Pollution Monitoring, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Environmental Microbiology, Environmental Monitoring, indoor air, Atmospheric Sciences, Molecular Biology/Genetics, Biology, ambient air quality, monitoring, particle size, particulates, risk assessment, sensitive populations, chemical exposure, air pollutants, cardiopulmonary responses, human health effects, indoor exposure, lung, ambient air monitoring, exposure and effects, ambient air, ambient measurement methods, exposure, pulmonary disease, developmental effects, epidemelogy, respiratory disease, COPD, air pollution, ambient monitoring, children, particle exposure, chronic effects, human exposure, inhalation, pulmonary, particulate exposure, ambient particle health effects, inhaled, PM, inhalation toxicology, cardiopulmonary, indoor air quality, human health, air quality, cardiovascular disease, dosimetry, exposure assessment, human health risk, respiratory, measurement methods

    Relevant Websites:

    https://cfserver.hsph.harvard.edu/cfdocs/eer/epa/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999 Progress Report
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827353    EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827353C001 Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
    R827353C002 Quantifying Exposure Error and its Effect on Epidemiological Studies
    R827353C003 St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
    R827353C004 Examining Conditions That Predispose Towards Acute Adverse Effects of Particulate Exposures
    R827353C005 Assessing Life-Shortening Associated with Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C006 Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C007 Determining the Effects of Particle Characteristics on Respiratory Health of Children
    R827353C008 Differentiating the Roles of Particle Size, Particle Composition, and Gaseous Co-Pollutants on Cardiac Ischemia
    R827353C009 Assessing Deposition of Ambient Particles in the Lung
    R827353C010 Relating Changes in Blood Viscosity, Other Clotting Parameters, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability to Particulate and Criteria Gas Exposures
    R827353C011 Studies of Oxidant Mechanisms
    R827353C012 Modeling Relationships Between Mobile Source Particle Emissions and Population Exposures
    R827353C013 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study
    R827353C014 Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
    R827353C015 Research Coordination Core
    R827353C016 Analytical and Facilities Core
    R827353C017 Technology Development and Transfer Core