Final Report: Field Pilot Test of In Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated SoilEPA Grant Number: R825511C015
Subproject: this is subproject number 015 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825511
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC
Center Director: Sidhu, Sukh S.
Title: Field Pilot Test of In Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil
Investigators: Hanesian, Deran
Institution: New Jersey Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Project Period: October 1, 1999 through June 30, 2001
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (1989) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Substance Research Centers , Land and Waste Management
The overall objective of the present study is to use sonic energy provided by a pneumatic transducer coupled with soil fracturing to enhance the remediation of volatile organic contaminants in situ from soil and rock in the vadose zone. Laboratory tests with a siren and a whistle have shown an enhancement for in situ soil remediation. The whistle, in particular, has demonstrated a contaminant mass removal rate of 1000 percent more than the control. In addition, the time required to reduce an initial contaminant weight of eleven pounds in the bed to one pound was reduced by a factor of at least 7 with the whistle. These results suggest that remediation time can be reduced leading to substantial savings in operational costs. In addition, it is believed that the proposed in situ ultrasound process will be an effective "polishing" technique for removal of residual contamination not accessible with current in situ techniques and enable site owners to reach regulatory levels at difficult sites, in situ.
The principal objective of the current study is to scale up the laboratory versions of the pneumatic transducers to full scale and to perform definitive field tests. McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers have agreed to cooperate in field testing of a site of Hillsborough, NJ containing trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene. The principal deliverable of this project will be the development of a full scale, operational, low cost, in situ, sonic detoxification process. This study will provide the "leap" from bench scale to field, which is a crucial step in technology development, training, and transfer.
Rationale: Soil fracturing technologies, both pneumatic and hydraulic, coupled with Vapor Extraction have enhanced the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, ultrasound technology has been proven in a variety of industrial applications for enhancing both liquid phase and vapor phase reactions and in cleaning and drying operations. When remediating contaminated soil and ground water at industrial sites, an in situ approach is preferred. It is the least costly, and it also minimizes potential contaminant exposure routes. The effectiveness of in situ remediation technologies is highly dependent on the transport characteristics of the geologic formation under treatment. In formations such as sand and gravel with high permeabilities, in situ treatment can be highly successful. However, in situ remediation in geologic formations containing silt, clay, or tight bedrock is more difficult due to the characteristics of low permeability and high adsorption potential of these geologic materials.
Thus, soil fracturing coupled with focused sonic energy and vapor extraction can enhance remediation of contaminated soil and can be a "polishing" technique to enable site owners to reach regulatory levels at difficulties, in situ. The technology transfer/training program proposed is a cooperative effort with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers at their current remediation site at Hillsborough, NJ. They are, at present, using vapor extraction as a remediation method for a site contaminated with trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene. During the past year, we have been cooperating with McLaren/Hart to apply our sonic enhancement technique at this site, and are currently engaged in a demonstration of the benefits of the sonic whistle in the field at this site coupled with soil fracturing.
Laboratory studies have been conducted under grants from the NHSRC resulting in the design and fabrication of a pneumatic siren and whistle. Both devices have shown to enhance in situ soil remediation with sonic energy, although the whistle, in particular, has been proven to greatly accelerate the removal of water from many granular materials. Bench scale tests with the whistle have shown increases in contaminant (water and ethyl alcohol) mass removal rates up to 1000% upon application of sonic energy. In addition, the time required to reduce the initial contaminant charge of eleven pounds to one pound was reduced by a factor of at least 7. These devices are a significant departure from previous attempts of ultrasonic enhancement in that they focus the sonic waves into discrete fracture zones.
In view of the encouraging results of the bench scale studies, the research team conducted the first field pilot test of sonic enhancement. The NJIT whistle assembly was installed to evaluate its effect on mass removal rate. The demonstration developed data in a field test and prepared for technology transfer.
Approach: McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers of Warren, New Jersey agreed to provide the test site and to supply in-kind support. The first phase involved a demonstration test in the contaminated area. Concentration behavior of the effluents generated during the test was carefully monitored to quantitatively determine the effects of sonic energy on mass removal rate. In addition to the field studies with the newly designed device, controlled laboratory studies will be continued to augment field observations. Laboratory tests were made to determine the effect of sonic frequency. In addition, attenuation studies were initiated at Lucent Technologies in Murray Hill, NJ and extended into the field.
The geologic formation underlying the site is Passaic Formation (formerly the Brunswick Formation) which consists of fractured siltstone. The principal site contaminant is trichloroethylene (TCE) which resides in both the vadose zone and the upper saturated zone. McLaren/Hart is operating a dual phase extraction system to extend the ongoing pump and treat remediation. It is planned to test the sonic energy in the deepened vadose zone created by the dual phase system. The siltstone in the test zone contains natural fractures that have been enhanced by pneumatic fracturing.
Since the whistle proved superior in the laboratory, and since studies in the laboratory have shown that an increase in sonic frequency has a small positive effect on removal rate, a field device containing two whistles was made. The whistle produced a higher sound intensity than our siren and sound intensity is believed to be important. Furthermore, the whistle requires no moving parts. The device was inserted into a fracture hole (existing well No. 4) and tests were made by alternately passing a fixed amount of air (about 10 SCFM) through the whistles and then the same amount of air by-passing the whistles. The input air rate was monitored. A nearby borehole (Well No. 8) was used as the effluent borehole and the system was sealed with packers.
Both flow rates in and out, and the concentration of trichloroethylene leaving the effluent borehole were measured. Concentrations and trichloroethylene removal rate were compared with and without sonic energy.
Simultaneously, sound attenuation studies were undertaken with the cooperation of Lucent Technologies at their laboratory in Murray Hill, NJ and extended into the field at Hillsborough, New Jersey.
Status: Laboratory studies measuring the effect of sonic frequency on removal rate were completed. The measurements made agreed with previous laboratory studies and showed a slight increase in the removal rate constant with a rise in frequency. This improvement was not statistically significant. The study suggested that sound intensity is an important variable in the effect on removal rate and that sound attenuation is important.
The next step was the field demonstration at the Hillsborough site. This initial study was completed. Comparative data on effluent concentration by vapor extraction and the total removal rate in cubic feet of trichloroethylene per minute were obtained. The data showed that the use of sonic energy increased the removal rate by an average value of 37.9 percent with a 95 percent confidence interval of about 31 to 45 percent. The concentration of trichloroethylene in the effluent stream increased by 20.8 percent with a 95 percent confidence interval of about 11 to 31 percent.
Simultaneously, attenuation studies were initiated at Lucent Technologies. The five whistles were used to measure attenuation in the air. All five whistles gave similar results, but the strongest whistle (whistle No. 5) gave about 150-160 dB at the source.
Using this whistle alone, runs were made in the field to measure attenuation in the fractured siltstone. Various boreholes were used as the injection well and the microphone was placed in various extraction wells. A number of different tests were made to determine the sound attenuation through the siltstone. The results indicate that very little sound was reaching the microphone and the hypothesis was made that perhaps sonic energy is absorbed rapidly in the irregular, real, underground fracture.
Based on these results, it was decided to return to the laboratory and model the fracture, simulate the environment using a siltstone slab and measure sound attenuation at various controlled fracture widths, various distances, and in various directions. These data are currently being developed. Preliminary results from these controlled tests show that some attenuation does occur but sound does reach the microphone when it is installed properly. These laboratory data suggest that some of the field study must be repeated.
Technology Transfer and Outreach Plan: An important NHSRC theme directly addressed by this project is field demonstration and application for training and technology transfer. The proper transition from the laboratory to the field is a critical step for any innovative technology, and this project will enhance the transition for the new in situ sonic system, which is currently in progress. From the inception of this project, the device has been purposely tailored for eventual field use by keeping the design simple, yet durable.
The technology transfer/training program proposed is a cooperative effort with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers at their current remediation site at Hillsborough, NJ. They are, at present, using vapor extraction as a remediation method for the site contaminated with trichloroethylene. During the past year, we have been cooperating with McLaren/Hart to apply our sonic enhancement technique at this site, and have completed our exploratory tests in demonstration of the benefits of the sonic whistle in the field at this site coupled with soil fracturing.
Laboratory studies with both the whistle and the siren are complete. The laboratory study of the effect of sonic frequency is complete but undergraduates are developing additional data. The comparative field demonstration study of the effect of sonic energy and removal rate was finished and the field study of attenuation was made. Additional attenuation studies are underway in the laboratory and will be extended to the field.
With an abundance of data, we have scheduled a seminar with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers for the spring of 2000 to enable them to use the technology to complete the remediation of the Hillsborough Site.
The principal deliverable of this project will be the development of a full-scale, operational in situ sonic process. Coupled with fracturing for soil remediation, performance data from an actual longer field test with the system will be evaluated a detailed in a final report. Plans for these tests to extend over a period of many days (compared to hours for the demonstration test) are underway. The study will provide the "leap" from bench scale to field scale, which is a crucial step in technology development, training, and transfer. It is expected that enhanced sonic remediation will be a major contribution from this NHSRC to the industrial sector.
Journal Articles:No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 15 publications for this subproject
Supplemental Keywords:In Situ treatment, Ultrasonic, Soil Fracturing., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Waste, Water, Chemical Engineering, Remediation, Contaminated Sediments, Environmental Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Hazardous Waste, Ecology and Ecosystems, Environmental Engineering, Hazardous, environmental technology, sediment treatment, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, risk assessment, in situ remediation, soil and groundwater remediation, in situ ultrasonic enhancement, biodegradation, contaminated sediment, contaminated soil, soil fracturing, in situ degradation, salt marsh sediments, chemical contaminants, bioremediation of soils, biotransformation, extraction of metals
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R825511 HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R825511C001 Development of Mechanisms and Kinetic Models on Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans from Aromatic Precursors
R825511C002 Real-Time Monitoring and Control of Emissions from Stationary Combustors and Incinerators
R825511C003 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
R825511C004 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
R825511C005 Advanced Leak Detection and Location Research: Extending the SERDP-funded Technical Base
R825511C006 Three-Dimensional Geostatistical Site Characterization with Updating
R825511C007 Anaerobic Biodegradation of PAHs in Soils and Dredged Sediments: Characterizing, Monitoring and Promoting Remediation
R825511C008 Substrate Accelerated Death and Extended Lag Phases as Causes of the Recalcitrance of Halogenated Compounds in Anoxic Environments
R825511C009 Fate and Transport of Nonionic Surfactants
R825511C010 In Situ Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and PAHs in Contaminated Salt Marsh Sediments
R825511C011 Design and Operation of Surfactant-Enhanced Bioslurry Reactors
R825511C012 Experimental Study of Overland Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts
R825511C013 Development of a Framework for Evaluation of Leaching from Solid Waste
R825511C014 Use of a New Leaching Test Framework for Evaluating Alternative Treatment Processes for Mercury Contaminated Mixed Waste (Hazardous and Radioactive)
R825511C015 Field Pilot Test of In Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil
R825511C016 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
R825511C017 Field Demonstration of the Use of Reactive Zero-Valence Iron Powder to Treat Source Zone Sites Impacted by Halogenated Volatile Organic Chemicals
R825511C018 Technology Transfer of Continuous Non-Methane Organic Carbon (C-NMOC) Analyzer
R825511C019 Field Sampling and Treatability Study for In-Situ Remediation of PCB's and Leachable Lead with Iron Powder
R825511C020 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration, PIC Formation, and Emissions Control
R825511C021 Experimental Studies and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion During Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes: Applied Research for the Generation of Design and Diagnostic Tools
R825511C022 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater - Phase IV
R825511C023 Novel Molecular Tools for Monitoring In-Situ Bioremediation
R825511C024 Surfactant-Enhanced Bioremediation of Soils in the Presence of an Organic Phase
R825511C025 Enhanced Microbial Dechlorination of PCBs and Dioxins in Contaminated Dredge Spoils
R825511C026 Toward A Risk-Based Model for Bioremediation of Multicomponent NAPL Contaminants
R825511C027 Removal and Recovery of VOCs and Oils from Surfactant-Flushed Recovered Water by Membrane Permeation
R825511C029 Field Pilot Test of In-Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil in Cooperation with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers at the Hillsborough, NJ Site
R825511C030 In-Situ Field Test of Electroremediation of a Chromate-Contaminated Site in Hudson County, New Jersey
R825511C031 Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals and Mixed Hazardous Wastes from Partially and Fully Saturated Soils
R825511C032 Effects of Clay Charge and Confining Stresses on Soil Remediation by Electroosmosis
R825511C033 Assessment of Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation for Soils/Aquifers Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
R825511C034 In-Situ Bioremediation of Organic Compounds: Coupling of Mass Transfer and Biodegradation
R825511C035 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
R825511C036 Field Pilot Scale Demonstration of Trench Bio-Sparge: An In-Situ Groundwater Treatment Technology
R825511C037 In-Situ Reductive Dehalogenation of Aliphatic Compounds by Fermentative Heterotrophic Bacteria
R825511C038 The Effect of Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios on Bacterial Transport and Biodegradation Rates In Soils
R825511C039 Ultrasonic Enhancement of Soil Fracturing Technologies for In-Situ Detoxification of Contaminated Soil
R825511C040 Full Field Demonstration of Integrated Pneumatic Fracturing and In-Situ Bioremediation
R825511C041 Determination of Adsorption and Desorption Behavior of Petroleum Products on Soils
R825511C042 Evaluation of the Potential for Complete Bioremediation of NAPL-Contaminated Soils Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
R825511C043 Characterization of Subsurface NAPL Distributions at Heterogeneous Field Sites
R825511C044 Development of a Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatograph/Microwave Induced Plasma/Mass Spectrometer (TDGC/MIP/MS) for On-site Analysis of Organic and Metal Contaminants
R825511C045 Using Trainable Networks for a Three-dimensional Characterization of Subsurface Contamination
R825511C046 Application of Advanced Waste Characterization to Soil Washing and Treatment
R825511C047 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater Phase III
R825511C048 Improved Luminescence Sensors for Oxygen Measurement
R825511C049 Preconcentration, Speciation and Determination of Dissolved Heavy Metals in Natural Waters, using Ion Exchange and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
R825511C050 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration and PIC Formation
R825511C051 PIC Emission Minimization: Fundamentals and Applications
R825511C052 Project Title: Development of a Two Stage, Pulse Combustion, VOC Destruction Technology
R825511C053 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
R825511C054 FTIR Analysis of Gaseous Products from Hazardous Waste Combustion
R825511C055 Toxic Metals Volatilization for Waste Separation and Real-time Metals Analyses
R825511C056 Mixed Metal Removal and Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Extractive Adsorber
R825511C057 Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Contaminated Groundwater and Soils by Pervaporation
R825511C058 Simultaneous SO2/NO Removal/Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane
R825511C059 Superfund Sites and Mineral Industries Method
R825511C060 Soil Washing of Mixed Organics/Metal Contamination
R825511C061 Removal of Cesium, Strontium, Americium, Technetium and Plutonium from Radioactive Wastewater
R825511C062 Development of a Method for Removal of Nonvolatile Organic Materials from Soil using Flotation
R825511C063 Recovery of Evaporative Fuel Losses by Vapor Permeation Membranes
R825511C064 Surfactant Selection Protocol for Ex Situ Soil Washing
R825511C065 Biofiltration for the Control of Toxic Industrial VOCs Emissions
R825511C066 Catalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water
R825511C067 Soil Washing for Remediating Metal Contaminated Soils
R825511C068 Aqueous Absorption and Kinetics of NO by Strong Oxidizing Agents
R825511C069 Remediation of Dredging Spoils
R825511C070 Freeze Concentration for Zero-Effluent Processes
R825511C071 Life Cycle/Pollution Prevention Response to Executive Order 12856
R825511C072 Faster Better, Cheaper Hazardous Waste Site Characterization and Cleanup: an Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Strategy Employing Dynamic Workplans
R825511C073 Development of a Comprehensive Computer Model for the Pneumatic Fracturing Process
R825511C074 Technology Demonstration and Validation of CFAST Field Analytical Instrumentation for Use in Hazardous Waste Site Characterization, Clean-up and Monitoring
R825511C075 XFLOW: Training Software Simulating Contaminant Site Characterization and Remediation