1998 Progress Report: Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Prediction of Processing Waste Streams for Discrete Products

EPA Grant Number: R825370C057
Subproject: this is subproject number 057 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825370
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)
Center Director: Crittenden, John C.
Title: Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Prediction of Processing Waste Streams for Discrete Products
Investigators: Sutherland, John
Institution: Michigan Technological University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period:    
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 1997 through January 1, 1998
RFA: Exploratory Environmental Research Centers (1992) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) , Targeted Research


The aim of this project is to develop "Process Evaluation and Selection Tools" to minimize the waste streams generated during manufacturing.

Progress Summary:

Product manufacture has undesirable environmental, health, and safety impacts. The long term cost associated with manufacturing processes need to take these environmental and health factors into consideration. This economic aspect provides the motivation for developing tools and enhancing knowledge related to reducing waste and contributes to the central mission of CenCITT, which is to prevent pollution and waste minimization through the application of economically sound technologies.

The ECM project is a joint effort between Michigan Technological University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ultimate goal of this effort is to produce an Environmental Advisory System for designing a concept design based product evaluation tool. The figure below illustrates the structure of the product evaluation tool.

Product Evaluation Tool Structure

A product life cycle consists of manufacturing, use, and post-use stages. This research project investigates the manufacturing stage and quantifies the environmental impact of various processes.

The research work at MTU is focused on the development of a manufacturing process waste stream evaluation software tool based on appropriate theoretical underpinnings. Initial efforts have been directed at identifying appropriate process models for waste streams, and minimizing waste streams using operation planning methods. The other part of the tool, which involves product design, is being developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison under the supervision of Dr. Rajit Gadh.

Major developments to date are waste stream models for Traditional Machining Techniques such as Turning, Tapping, Milling, Drilling and Non-Traditional Machining Techniques such as Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) processes. The waste streams identified with their associated process performance measures for traditional and EDM processes are depicted in the table below.

Research on various other aspects of environmentally conscious manufacturing was carried out simultaneously under the guidance of Dr. John Sutherland. Models have been developed to understand the effect of cutting fluids on chip morphology in machining processes with special focus on drilling operations. A project was undertaken in which a mechanistic model was proposed to predict chip curvature based on stream line theory in orthogonal cutting. These efforts have been supported by: Ford, NSF, NSF-EPA, Caterpillar, Setco, Kennametal, M.A. Ford, Cheboygan, Heldun, Chesterton, and Valenite.

The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing efforts at the University of Wisconsin-Madison funded by CenCITT complement those at Michigan Technological University in shaping an integrated software tool for design guidance.

MTU has also partnered with eight other universities: University of Illinois, Purdue University, University of Michigan, Northwestern University, Penn State University, University of Nebraska, University of California-Berkeley, and Georgia Institute of Technology on the formation of the Machine Tool-Agile Manufacturing Research Institute (MT-AMRI). The MT-AMRI effort is funded by NSF/DARPA and one of the projects undertaken as part of this program is focused on Environmentally Conscious Machining.

Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 21 publications 7 publications in selected types All 4 journal articles
Other center views: All 157 publications 45 publications in selected types All 36 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Batzer, S.A., D.M. Haan, P.D. Rao, W.W. Olson, and J.W. Sutherland, "Chip morphology and hole surface texture in the drilling of cast aluminum alloys." Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 79(1-3), pp. 72-78, July, 1998. R825370C057 (1998)
not available
Journal Article Batzer, S.A. and J.W. Sutherland, "The dry cure for coolant ills." Cutting Tool Engineering 1998;50(4):34-44. R825370C057 (1998)
not available
Journal Article Gunter KL, Sutherland JW. "An experimental investigation into the Effect of Process Conditions on the Mass Concentration of Cutting Fluid Mist in Turning." Journal of Cleaner Production 1999;7(5):341-350. R825370C057 (1998)
not available
Journal Article Haan, D.M., S.A. Batzer, W.W. Olson, and J.W. Sutherland, "An Experimental study of cutting fluid effects in drilling." Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 71(2), pp. 305-313, November, 1997. R825370C057 (1998)
not available

Supplemental Keywords:

RFA, Scientific Discipline, Economic, Social, & Behavioral Science Research Program, Sustainable Industry/Business, cleaner production/pollution prevention, Sustainable Environment, Technology for Sustainable Environment, Civil/Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Economics and Business, decision-making, New/Innovative technologies, Environmental Engineering, Economics & Decision Making, modeling production technology, waste minimization, waste reduction, Production/Pollution Prevention, environmentally conscious manufacturing, decision analysis, environmental decision making, decision making, machining, production processes, catalyst vapors, models, waste streams

Main Center Abstract and Reports:

R825370    EERC - National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT)

Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R825370C032 Means for Producing an Entirely New Generation of Lignin-Based Plastics
R825370C042 Environmentally Conscious Design for Construction
R825370C046 Clean Process Advisory System (CPAS) Core Activities
R825370C048 Investigation of the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol in a Simulated Countercurrent Moving Bed Reactor
R825370C054 Predictive Tool for Ultrafiltration Performance
R825370C055 Heuristic Reactor Design for Clean Synthesis and Processing - Separative Reactors
R825370C056 Characterization of Selective Solid Acid Catalysts Towards the Rational Design of Catalytic Reactions
R825370C057 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Prediction of Processing Waste Streams for Discrete Products
R825370C064 The Physical Properties Management System (PPMS™): A P2 Engineering Aid to Support Process Design and Analysis
R825370C065 Development and Testing of Pollution Prevention Design Aids for Process Analysis and Decision Making
R825370C066 Design Tools for Chemical Process Safety: Accident Probability
R825370C067 Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Design for Disassembly (DFD) in De-Manufacturing of Products
R825370C068 An Economic Comparison of Wet and Dry Machining
R825370C069 In-Line Copper Recovery Technology
R825370C070 Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid
R825370C071 Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers from Industrial Wastewater
R825370C072 Tin Zeolites for Partial Oxidation Catalysis
R825370C073 Development of a High Performance Photocatalytic Reactor System for the Production of Methanol from Methane in the Gas Phase
R825370C074 Recovery of Waste Polymer Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Metal Casting Industry
R825370C075 Industrial Implementation of the P2 Framework
R825370C076 Establishing Automated Linkages Between Existing P2-Related Software Design Tools
R825370C077 Integrated Applications of the Clean Process Advisory System to P2-Conscious Process Analysis and Improvement
R825370C078 Development of Environmental Indices for Green Chemical Production and Use