Technology Commercialization And Education

EPA Grant Number: R827649C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827649
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Center for Air Toxic Metals® (CATM®)
Center Director: Groenewold, Gerald
Title: Technology Commercialization And Education
Investigators: Pavlish, John H. , Benson, Steven A. , Purfeerst, Cynthia M. , Wixo, Constance Y.
Institution: University of North Dakota
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 15, 1999 through October 14, 2002
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Center for Air Toxic Metals (CATM) (1998) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Targeted Research


The goal of Program Area 5 is to transfer technical information produced by CATM concerning trace metals to interested parties in research organizations and throughout the energy and environmental industry, as well as to provide training and educational opportunities for both students and professionals. Additionally, as products are developed and demonstrated through CATM, partnerships will be developed leading to commercialized technologies.


In order to facilitate the sharing of information, several programs and meetings involving industry, government, research organizations, and the general public have been planned. In addition, educational institutes have been targeted to provide education on environmental issues, including pollution prevention and control technologies. Initially, efforts have focused on local education programs and on improving the curriculum at UND.


The fourth annual CATM meeting was held at the EERC in September 1997. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum by which industry, government, and the research community could exchange information on air toxic metals and provide direction for CATM's research, development, and commercialization programs. Approximately 60 people participated, representing the government (including EPA, DOE, MPCA, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, USGS, and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality), industry, and academic research organizations. Highlights of the meeting included a presentation by Martha Keating of the EPA on the status of the "Mercury Report to Congress" and a panel discussion entitled "Mercury Regulations - What Are the Options?" One of the major results of the discussion was the recognition that no cost-effective control technologies are currently available for utility applications to control elemental Hg.

The Science Advisory Committee (SAC) was restructured during the past year and is now one of two committees making up the Research Advisory Council (RAC). The other committee, the Partners Advisory Committee (PAC), has a representative from each of the current Affiliate members and a member from EPA. In December 1996, a draft Request for Ideas was sent to the PAC members for their input regarding research needs in the area of air toxic metals. Based on this input and input from other staff at the EERC, ten preproposals were mailed to the SAC in March 1997 for their technical review. Written comments and suggestions were returned to the CATM Director and Associate Director for preparation of the CATM 1997 program. A second meeting was held in conjunction with the fourth annual CATM meeting at the EERC in September 1997. At this meeting, the EPA Program Officer, PAC members, and CATM staff discussed CATM's future direction and identified and prioritized research needs. The EERC's newly hired Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Officer was also introduced and gave a short presentation on the direction of the QA/QC Program at the EERC and how it addresses CATM requirements.

The Affiliates Program has been well received and has generated significant interest by several sponsors. To date, EPRI, Otter Tail Power Company, Northern States Power Company (NSP), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the NDIC are official Affiliate Program members.

Part of the mission of CATM involves contributing to improved environmental education opportunities for students at UND. As a step toward that goal, CATM provided funding for UND faculty to develop stronger environmental education components in their courses. Two courses were selected for funding through a competitive review process. Dr. Theron Nelson of UND's Department of Finance is continuing the process of establishing an Environmental Issues minor for students throughout the College of Business and Public Administration (CBPA). Final approval by the CBPA's Curriculum Committee is pending. Dr. Douglas Ludlow of the UND Department of Chemical Engineering has incorporated pollution prevention and remediation issues into a freshman-level chemical engineering course. Both of these programs have or are expected to reach a large number of undergraduate students.

In September 1997, the EERC's volunteer Environmental Education Committee (EEC) teamed with the EERC's Red River Water Management Consortium (RRWMC), CATM, the city of Grand Forks, and additional volunteers to kick off the Storm Drain Stenciling Project. Storm drain stenciling is a simple and economical way to promote environmental education by teaching citizens that storm drains generally flow to the nearest river, lake, or stream without any treatment. Decreasing and eventually eliminating waste disposal directly or indirectly into storm drains is a way to prevent a major source of water pollution. The program consisted of volunteers using a 17- by 11 -inch stencil to paint a pollution prevention message next to street drains throughout the city: "DUMP NO WASTE - DRAINS TO RIVER," accompanied by the image of a fish. Volunteers also handed out informational flyers to the public that provide practical, easy- to-implement solutions to several stormwater pollution problems, such as disposal of motor oil, cleaning solvents, paint and paint thinner, gasoline, antifreeze, plastics, and yard waste.

Two issues of the CATM Newsletter were published and distributed to industry and other interested parties. The newsletter is circulated within all states of the United States and to over 40 countries internationally. The newsletter is designed to inform interested parties of air toxic issues and CATM activities and to encourage further participation and collaboration among industry and government. The newsletter is also available through the EERC's home page on the World Wide Web at

In February 1997, the EEC conducted its fourth annual waste audit. The audit involved taking inventory of 2 days' worth of garbage generated at the EERC and sorting the waste into recyclable and nonrecyclable categories. The results were compared with the findings of the first three waste audits and showed that only 34% of EERC's garbage is recyclable material, an all- time low in our waste audit history. This indicates that EERC employees are making good use of the recyclable collection bins placed throughout the work areas for white and mixed paper, cans, #l and #2 plastic bottles, and glass. Total daily output continues to hover around half a pound per person for the third year in a row.

CATM Short Course

A practical, l-day short course on air toxic metals entitled "Trace Metals in Industrial Applications" was developed and presented to industry. The goal of the short course is to provide an overview of trace metal behavior and control in systems utilizing coal, oil, and natural gas or alternative fuels such as biomass, municipal solid waste, and RDFs. The course covers topic areas such as trace elements in fuels, sampling and analysis, trace element transformations and partitioning, control technologies, prediction and modeling, ash by-products, and a regulatory overview. The knowledge learned can assist in the design of new systems or the retrofit of existing units, can aid in the selection of coals and fuels for power generation, or can guide the blending of fuels to meet regulatory constraints.

The physical and chemical characteristics of all types of fuels are addressed in light of trace element content. The sampling and analysis sections cover the use of various standard and advanced techniques, the latest research in the development of methods, and the problems associated with determining trace element concentrations and emissions in power-generating facilities. Trace element transformations and partitioning during combustion and postcombustion processes are complex. This short course addresses the components involved, transformation types, and various approaches to studying transformations and partitioning. Control technologies, both conventional and advanced, are addressed in relation to the latest DOE comprehensive report on HAPs. A section on predictive methods relates alternative methods to evaluate the fate and emission of trace elements in a given system and fuel type. Fuel conversion ash by-products of all types are addressed in relation to trace elements. The various types of ash material, the trace metal distribution, and methods of evaluating trace metal mobility of ash by-products are described. The regulatory section is an overview of the events leading up to and a discussion of the present regulatory situation.


Because of the time line that Congress has imposed on EPA, training, education, and dissemination of up-to-date information to industry and government agencies (EPA, DOE) in a timely manner are critical. Sharing and transferring the latest research findings to industry and EPA will greatly assist in establishing scientifically based regulatory standards.

Supplemental Keywords:

RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Sustainable Industry/Business, Chemical Engineering, air toxics, cleaner production/pollution prevention, Environmental Chemistry, Sustainable Environment, Chemistry, Technology for Sustainable Environment, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, ambient air quality, education, technology commercialization, information transfer, pollution prevention, technology transfer, trace metals

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827649    Center for Air Toxic Metals® (CATM®)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827649C001 Development And Demonstration Of Trace Metals Database
    R827649C002 Nickel Speciation Of Residual Oil Ash
    R827649C003 Atmospheric Deposition: Air Toxics At Lake Superior
    R827649C004 Novel Approaches For Prevention And Control For Trace Metals
    R827649C005 Wet Scrubber System
    R827649C006 Technology Commercialization And Education
    R827649C007 Development Of Speciation And Sampling Tools For Mercury In Flue Gas
    R827649C008 Process Impacts On Trace Element Speciation
    R827649C009 Mercury Transformations in Coal Combustion Flue Gas
    R827649C010 Nickel, Chromium, and Arsenic Speciation of Ambient Particulate Matter in the Vicinity of an Oil-Fired Utility Boiler
    R827649C011 Transition Metal Speciation of Fossil Fuel Combustion Flue Gases
    R827649C012 Fundamental Study of the Impact of SCR on Mercury Speciation
    R827649C013 Development of Mercury Sampling and Analytical Techniques
    R827649C014 Longer-Term Testing of Continuous Mercury Monitors
    R827649C015 Long-Term Mercury Monitoring at North Dakota Power Plants
    R827649C016 Development of a Laser Absorption Continuous Mercury Monitor
    R827649C017 Development of Mercury Control Technologies
    R827649C018 Developing SCR Technology Options for Mercury Oxidation in Western Fuels
    R827649C019 Modeling Mercury Speciation in Coal Combustion Systems
    R827649C020 Stability of Mercury in Coal Combustion By-Products and Sorbents
    R827649C021 Mercury in Alternative Fuels
    R827649C022 Studies of Mercury Metabolism and Selenium Physiology