Final Report: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center

EPA Grant Number: R835441
Center: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center
Center Director: McConnell, Rob Scot
Title: Southern California Children's Environmental Health Center
Investigators: McConnell, Rob Scot
Institution: University of Southern California
EPA Project Officer: Nolt-Helms, Cynthia
Project Period: July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2018 (Extended to June 30, 2019)
Project Amount: $4,146,875
RFA: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (with NIEHS) (2012) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health

Objective:

The ultimate goal of the Center was to translate research findings so that they can be used to develop sustainable strategies to reduce air pollution and other environmental exposures to children, and thus reduce the incidence of environmentally related childhood disease. SC-CEHC’s key research questions were:

  • Does in utero and childhood near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure cause childhood obesity? If so, what are the mechanisms?
  • Does NRAP affect fat distribution, ectopic fat and adipose tissue inflammation?
  • Does NRAP affect glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome?
  • Are effects of NRAP on metabolic and inflammatory outcomes the result of changes in fat distribution and and/or adipose tissue inflammation?

Project 1: Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Obesity in Children

Although studies support the hypotheses that exposures to air pollution during developmental periods play a role in the trajectory toward childhood obesity, adipose tissue redistribution, inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, little was known about the responsible mechanisms or the causal components of air pollution that could be targets for prevention. We aimed to fill critical gaps in the scientific knowledge base by investigating the effects of elevated near-roadway (NRAP) exposures during the in utero and childhood periods on clinically important obesity phenotypes, obesity-related inflammation and adipokines, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta-cell function and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We identified NRAP as the exposures of interest as traffic-related particulate matter (PM) produce systemic oxidative stress and inflammation that may be responsible for adverse health effects.

Project 2: Near-Roadway Air Pollution, Adipose Inflammation, and Metabolic Consequences

Major goals of the project were to investigate the effects of lifetime cumulative exposure to ambient NRAP on macrophage polarization in subcutaneous adipose tissue from M2 to pro-inflammatory M1 subtypes. We hypothesize that exposure to the NRAP mixture will be associated with increased proportion of M1/M2 macrophages; to investigate the effects of lifetime exposure to NRAP on adipose tissue function and cell-specific gene expression; to integrate information from Project 1 and Project 2 using a novel latent variable model to examine quantitatively the mechanisms underlying the entire pathway of NRAP effects on metabolic outcomes. Understanding these mechanisms would strengthen our causal inference on NRAP health effects and identify new targets for intervention.

Project 3: Longitudinal Effects of Air Pollution on Obesity In Mice

The overall goals of Project 3 were to carry out comprehensive experiments in mice to determine the effect of NRAP on obesity and related metabolic traits. Aims were to determine the longitudinal effects of nanoscale particulate matter (nPM) exposure on the development of obesity and relevant physiological metabolic phenotypes; to characterize adipose tissue from mice for molecular, histological, and biochemical phenotypes and macrophage subtypes (M1/M2) in adipose tissue; and to investigate whether the effects of nPM exposure on obesity are mediated through neurobiological pathways involved in metabolic regulation.

Community Outreach and Translation Core :

The aims of the Community Outreach and Translation Core (COTC) were to develop new outlets for dissemination of research findings on NRAP and its health effects on children, including emerging findings linking NRAP to obesity and other metabolic consequences; to build civic engagement in environmental health around the issues of air pollution and physical activity; to enhance the capacity of community and youth to inform policymakers about the need to consider research findings on the health effects of NRAP when siting new infrastructure and when evaluating regulations, technology, urban design or behavior; and to evaluate COTC efforts and share successful strategies and models with others at the local and national level.

Administrative Core:

The goal of the Core was to insure multidisciplinary interactions among basic, clinical, and public health scientists and community outreach faculty and staff to enhance a world-class research and outreach program in children’s health. Aims included to coordinate a program of research that integrates state-of-the-art exposure assessment with innovative health effects research to achieve rapid advances in understanding the impact of air pollution on childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation; facilitate the translation/application of research findings to prevention, policy, and clinical decision making arenas and provide valuable information to communities, clinicians and policymakers; provide fiscal management and reporting and coordinate interactions with NIEHS and EPA; foster the career development program of junior investigators into independent contributors to pediatric environmental health research; and make important contributions to national networks that foster communication, innovation, and research excellence in the area of children’s environmental health.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The Center developed important new science that advanced our understanding of effects of NRAP and particulate matter during gestation and childhood on obesity, insulin resistance and adipose tissue during childhood and in animal models. It promoted the development of new investigators and translated research findings for clinicians, community groups, policy makers, and other stakeholders interested in childhood obesity and in air pollution health effects.

Project 1: Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Obesity in Children

We have investigated the longitudinal effects of prenatal, early and later childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollutants on BMI trajectory and obesity in the CHS cohort. Manuscripts showing early life traffic pollution is associated with later childhood BMI growth are published and under review. We have shown insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell function were associated with PM. Additional data analysis is largely complete, and manuscripts are in preparation and review. The epidemiologic evidence is supported by experimental studies using animal models, which show particulate air pollutant increases visceral adiposity, adipose inflammation, systemic inflammation, metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerotic lesions. These data suggest that near roadway exposure to motor vehicle emissions are not only obesogenic but increase the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of obesity. These obesogenic mobile source emissions are substantial in the Los Angeles region, and many of the 3 million children in Los Angeles are highly exposed because they reside, play and go to school in close proximity to major roads. These children may be at increased lifetime risk for chronic diseases from chronically elevated exposures occurring during critical developmental periods including the in utero, early childhood (ages 0-5 years) and later childhood (ages 5-18 years) periods.

Project 2: Near-Roadway Air Pollution, Adipose Inflammation, and Metabolic Consequences

T cells in adipose tissue and blood were sorted for M1 and M2 macrophages and T-regulatory (Treg) and T-effector (Teff) cells. Key findings showed reduced adipose tissue M2 and Treg cell number concentration, surprisingly, in association with increasing ozone, a pattern that was stronger if there were higher concentrations of M1 or Teff cells, respectively. We observed an opposite pattern of increased Tregs associated with an interaction of NO2 with Teff cells and with M1 cells. However, the NO2 associations were explained by the ozone pattern of effects. Ozone has an immune modulatory pattern that reduces Treg cell number. Adipocytokines in serum and BMI did not show a consistent pattern of associations with either adipose tissue cell counts or with air pollution. Thus, T- and M-cell effects of air pollution do not explain the systemic associations observed in other studies. Manuscripts have been published or are in preparation.

Project 3: Longitudinal Effects of Air Pollution on Obesity In Mice

Mice exposed prenatally and lifelong in separate experiments showed both male and female mice exposed to nPM in utero exhibited differences in the body weight gains at 4 weeks of age but only females continued to show differences in body weight out to 14 weeks of age. The increase in body weight in females was mostly attributable to increased fat mass, particularly at 12 and 16 weeks of age. By comparison, nPM effects on body composition in males were no longer observed at 16 weeks of age. This was accompanied by both male and female nPM-exposed mice exhibiting impaired glucose clearance after being administered intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, with significantly higher area under the glucose tolerance curve (AUC) than control-exposed mice. Interestingly, male mice exposed to nPM showed a 77% reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus as measured by EdU positive cells colocalized with NeuN. However, astrogenesis, measured by EdU positive cells colocalized with GFAP, and the total number of EdU positive cells was not altered by nPM exposure. Manuscripts have been published or are in preparation.

Community Outreach and Translation Core:

The Community Outreach and Translation Core partnered with community organizations throughout the greater Los Angeles area to help them develop participatory air pollution monitoring programs with youth, conducted popular education-based air pollution monitoring workshops and activities around LA to environmental justice and community health-based organizations, and local high school and college students. In just the final year we have reached over 1200 residents through events, workshops, and trainings. An air pollution monitoring curriculum and manual for how to operate AirBeams, low cost real-time PM2.5 sensors were developed as part of “A Day in the Life” program with high school youth. The curriculum reviewed goods movement and other sources of PM, health effects of near roadway air pollution and the positive benefits of urban green space. The curriculum is rooted in a popular education framework that engages participants through their own lived experiences. Using the air pollution and obesity theme students learned skills needed to capture and craft a story, such as story boarding, framing shots, and becoming familiar with photo and video editing tools.

A key interest at the intersection of air pollution and physical activity is parks, green spaces and urban design, because exercise is so important to reduce obesity, and air pollution is increased at green spaces near major roadways. We developed a collaboration with the USC urbanism and landscape architect program and local landscape firms to expand experts engaged in addressing this issue in a series of ongoing meetings that has engaged students and faculty in working with the LA parks department to design safer parks. The Core has conducted workshops and arranged trainings with community volunteers to learn more about air pollution impacts in communities in East LA interested in learning more about obesity and air pollution; provided information about the latest science to the City Council and the Planning and Land-Use Committee, at City request, to answer questions regarding traffic related air pollution and to discuss health effects associated with building housing adjacent to busy roadways. The COTC has held trainings, workshops and conferences to disseminate research and hear from the community , at parent meetings at schools, at community asthma coalition meetings, and at meetings about EH disparities, among others. The COTC has also developed expertise in the multimedia area, training community members to develop videos telling stories about their communities’ concerns or their achievements, and also in developing print and online interactive infographics on environmental health topics. The COTC has implemented community participatory pollution monitoring programs for community volunteers and students.

An important initiative co-led by USC has been a collaboration between Children’s Centers COTC around children’s environmental health messaging and CEHC research dissemination on social media. The social media workgroup (SMW) created social media content from the Impact Report to be used by all CEHCs. The collaborative group applied for and received Administrative Supplement funding from NEIHS to expand capacity to include social media assessment, training and capacity building for CEHCs and other environmental health centers and Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units, including a training as part of the CEHC annual meeting in October 2018.

The COTC has refined methodology for communicating science through infographics. In collaboration with community partners, the COTC developed and published multiple bilingual infographics focused on air pollution, parks and health, and green cleaning products, neighborhood oil drilling, goods movement, the Salton Sea, lead, and arsenic. The materials have been featured at several community events, professional conferences and highlighted through social media.

Administrative Core:

Administratively, an Executive Committee (EC) of the SC-CEHC director, deputy director, Project and COTC directors, the public health specialist and the Center administrator integrated the perspective of exposure assessment, air pollution health effects in humans and animals, childhood obesity and diabetes throughout the period of the award. Progress was assessed at monthly meetings and problems resolved. Time permitting review of potential new opportunities were reviewed, such as possibilities for engaging with the HELIX project, a European cohort consortium, to examine associations of air pollution.

The Core provided administrative support to a wide variety of activities led by the COTC, including support of the Public Health Specialist, coordination of media requests, and assistance with other COTC activities. A key task of the Core leadership and staff was responsibility for fiscal management/reporting, coordination of fiscal support for projects, and coordination of interactions and reports with NIEHS and EPA.

Conclusions:

The Center has supported three Center Faculty Development Investigators over the course of the award, who have developed successful academic careers with Center support; The Core has supported participation of investigators in the annual and monthly phone meetings of the Center directors. Several inter-center collaborations were developed, in addition to the social media working group. A collaboration with the UC Davis Center around autism and neurocognitive effects of air pollution resulted in development of a new investigator and multiple funded R01 proposals. The Core coordinated a shared Career Development Program (CDP) with the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center that promoted the progress of postdoctoral fellows, the Faculty Development Investigator and other junior faculty in both Centers to research independence.


Journal Articles: 78 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 82 publications 78 publications in selected types All 78 journal articles
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Journal Article Alderete TL, Autran C, Brekke BE, Knight R, Bode L, Goran MI, Fields DA. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015;102(6):1381-1388. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Habre R, Toledo-Corral CM, Berhane K, Chen Z, Lurmann FW, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution with insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and adiposity in Los Angeles Latino children. Diabetes 2017;66(7):1789-1796. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Jones RB, Chen Z, Kim JS, Habre R, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD, Goran MI. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese adolescents. Environmental Research 2018;161:472-478. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Song AY, Bastain T, Habre R, Toledo-Corral CM, Salam MT, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD, Breton CV. Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposures, cord blood adipokines and infant weight. Pediatric Obesity 2018:13(6):348-356. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Allayee H, Hazen SL. Contribution of gut bacteria to lipid levels: another metabolic role for microbes? Circulation Research 2015;117(9):750-754. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Berger PK, Fields DA, Demerath EW, Fujiwara H, Goran MI. High-fructose corn-syrup-sweetened beverage intake increases 5-hour breast milk fructose concentrations in lactating women. Nutrients 2018;10(6):669 (9 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Bouret S, Levin BE, Ozanne SE. Gene-environment interactions controlling energy and glucose homeostasis and the developmental origins of obesity. Physiological Reviews 2015;95(1):47-82. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Mack WJ, Yao J, Berhane K, Amadeus M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, McConnell R, Hodis HN, Kunzli N, Avol E. Prenatal air pollution exposure and early cardiovascular phenotypes in young adults. PLoS One 2016;11(3):e0150825 (12 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chen Z, Salam MT, Toledo-Corral C, Watanabe RM, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA, Habre R, Bastain TM, Lurmann F, Wilson JP, Trigo E, Gilliland FD. Ambient air pollutants have adverse effects on insulin and glucose homeostasis in Mexican Americans. Diabetes Care 2016;39(4):547-554. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chen Z, Salam MT, Alderete TL, Habre R, Bastain TM, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Effects of childhood asthma on the development of obesity among school-aged children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2017;195(9):1181-1188. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Cheng H, Davis DA, Hasheminassab S, Sioutas C, Morgan TE, Finch CE. Urban traffic-derived nanoparticulate matter reduces neurite outgrowth via TNFα in vitro. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2016;13:19 (11 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Cho J, Goldenson NI, Pester MS, Khoddam R, Bello MS, Dunton GF, Belcher BR, Leventhal AM. Longitudinal associations between anhedonia and body mass index trajectory groups among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;63(1):81-87. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Cui X, Gong J, Han H, He L, Teng Y, Tetley T, Sinharay R, Chung KF, Islam T, Gilliland F, Grady S, Garshick E, Li Z, Zhang JJ. Relationship between free and total malondialdehyde, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, in various types of human biospecimens. Journal of Thoracic Disease 2018;10(5):3088-3097. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Dueker D, Taher M, Wilson J, McConnell R. Evaluating children's location using a personal GPS logging instrument: limitations and lessons learned. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2014;24(3):244-252. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Dunton GF, O'Connor SG, Belcher BR, Maher JP, Schembre SM. Objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time are differentially related to dietary fat and carbohydrate intake in children. Frontiers in Public Health 2018;6:198 (6 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Fruin S, Urman R, Lurmann F, McConnell R, Gauderman J, Rappaport E, Franklin M, Gilliland FD, Shafer M, Gorski P, Avol E. Spatial variation in particulate matter components over a large urban area. Atmospheric Environment 2014;83:211-219. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Ghazalpour A, Cespedes I, Bennett BJ, Allayee H. Expanding role of gut microbiota in lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2016;27(2):141-147. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Kunzli N, McConnell R. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential impact of a greenhouse gas reduction strategy in Southern California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(2):193-200. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ghosh R, Gauderman WJ, Minor H, Youn HA, Lurmann F, Cromar KR, Chatzi L, Belcher B, Fielding CR, McConnell R. Air pollution, weight loss and metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery: a potential model for study of metabolic effects of environmental exposures. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(5):312-320. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Goran MI, Martin AA, Alderete TL, Fujiwara H, Fields DA. Fructose in breast milk is positively associated with infant body composition at 6 months of age. Nutrients 2017;9(2)146 (11 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Habre R, Zhou H, Eckel SP, Enebish T, Fruin S, Bastain T, Rappaport E, Gilliland F. Short-term effects of airport-associated ultrafine particle exposure on lung function and inflammation in adults with asthma. Environment International 2018;118:48-59. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hasson RE, Hsu YJ, Davis JN, Goran MI, Spruijt-Metz D. The influence of parental education on dietary intake in Latino youth. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2018;20(1):250-254. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Hsieh S, Klassen AC, Curriero FC, Caulfield LE, Cheskin LJ, Davis JN, Goran MI, Weigensberg MJ, Spruijt-Metz D. Built environment associations with adiposity parameters among overweight and obese Hispanic youth. Preventive Medicine Reports 2015;2:406-412. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hsieh S, Leaderer BP, Feldstein AE, Santoro N, McKay LA, Caprio S, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution associations with cytokeratin-18, a marker of hepatocellular apoptosis, in an overweight and obese paediatric population. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(6):342-347. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Hsu TM, Konanur VR, Taing L, Usui R, Kayser BD, Goran MI, Kanoski SE. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats. Hippocampus 2015;25(2):227-239. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Künzli N, Avol E, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Molitor JN, Molitor JT, Thomas DC, Peters J, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(10):1433-1438. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, McConnell R, Wolch J, Chang R, Lam C, Dunton G, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Islam T, Berhane K. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. Environmental Health 2014;13:49 (9 pp.). R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Kayser BD, Goran MI, Bouret SG. Perinatal overnutrition exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation caused by high-fat feeding in C57BL/6J mice. PLoS One 2015;10(3):e0121954 (15 pp.). R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kayser BD, Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk in Hispanic adolescents with obesity. Obesity 2015;23(7):1479-1485. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kim JS, Alderete TL, Chen Z, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Habre R, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Longitudinal associations of in utero and early life near-roadway air pollution with trajectories of childhood body mass index. Environmental Health 2018;17(1):64 (10 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Kim JY, Goran MI, Toledo-Corral CM, Weigensberg MJ, Shaibi GQ. Comparing glycemic indicators of prediabetes: a prospective study of obese Latino Youth. Pediatric Diabetes 2015;16(8):640-643. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Li L, Lurmann F, Habre R, Urman R, Rappaport E, Ritz B, Chen JC, Gilliland FD, Wu J. Constrained mixed-effect models with ensemble learning for prediction of nitrogen oxides concentrations at high spatiotemporal resolution. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(17):9920-9929. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Lopez NV, Schembre S, Belcher BR, O'Connor S, Maher JP, Arbel R, Margolin G, Dunton GF. Parenting styles, food-related parenting practices, and children's healthy eating: a mediation analysis to examine relationships between parenting and child diet. Appetite 2018;128:205-213. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Luo S, O'Connor SG, Belcher BR, Page KA. Effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on brain response to high-calorie food cues in young adults. Obesity 2018;26(3):540-546. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Lurmann F, Avol E, Gilliland F. Emissions reduction policies and recent trends in Southern California's ambient air quality. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2015;65(3):324-335. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Shen E, Gilliland FD, Jerrett M, Wolch J, Chang C-C, Lurmann F, Berhane K. A longitudinal cohort study of body mass index and childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and air pollution: the Southern California Children's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(4):360-366. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Goran M, Allayee H, Hricko A, Mittelman S. Does near-roadway air pollution contribute to childhood obesity? Pediatric Obesity 2016;11(1):1-3. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Noble EE, Hsu TM, Jones RB, Fodor AA, Goran MI, Kanoski SE. Early-life sugar consumption affects the rat microbiome independently of obesity. The Journal of Nutrition 2017;147(1):20-28. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O'Connor SG, Ke W, Dzubur E, Schembre S, Dunton GF. Concordance and predictors of concordance of children's dietary intake as reported via ecological momentary assessment and 24 h recall. Public Health Nutrition 2018;21(6):1019-1027. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article O'Reilly GA, Belcher BR, Davis JN, Martinez LT, Huh J, Antunez-Castillo L, Weigensberg M, Goran MI, Spruijt-Metz D. Effects of high-sugar and high-fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents. Obesity 2015;23(9):1886-1894. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pomatto LCD, Cline M, Woodward N, Pakbin P, Sioutas C, Morgan TE, Finch CE, Forman HJ, Davies KJA. Aging attenuates redox adaptive homeostasis and proteostasis in female mice exposed to traffic-derived nanoparticles ('vehicular smog'). Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2018;121:86-97. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Ritz B, Qiu J, Lee PC, Lurmann F, Penfold B, Erin Weiss R, McConnell R, Arora C, Hobel C, Wilhelm M. Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in Los Angeles, California. Environmental Research 2014;130:7-13. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Shankardass K, McConnell R, Jerrett M, Lam C, Wolch J, Milam J, Gilliland F, Berhane K. Parental stress increases body mass index trajectory in pre-adolescents. Pediatric Obesity 2014;9(6):435-442. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Smallwood T, Allayee H, Bennett BJ. Choline metabolites: gene by diet interactions. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2016;27(1):33-39. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Su JG, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Berhane K, Dunton G, Shankardass K, Reynolds K, Chang R, Wolch J. Factors influencing whether children walk to school. Health & Place 2013;22:153-161. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tellez-Rojo MM, Bellinger DC, Arroyo-Quiroz C, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Mercado-Garcia A, Schnaas-Arrieta L, Wright RO, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. Longitudinal associations between blood lead concentrations lower than 10 μg/dL and neurobehavioral development in environmentally exposed children in Mexico City. Pediatrics 2006;118(2):e323-e330. R835441 (2017)
    R831725 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Richey J, Sequeira P, Goran MI, Weigensberg MJ. Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic versus normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents. Acta Diabetologica 2015;52(2):277-284. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Toledo-Corral CM, Alderete TL, Habre R, Berhane K, Lurmann FW, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Gilliland FD. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children. Pediatric Obesity 2018;13(1):54-62. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Urman R, Gauderman J, Fruin S, Lurmann F, Liu F, Hosseini R, Franklin M, Avol E, Penfold B, Gilliland F, Brunekreef B, McConnell R. Determinants of the spatial distributions of elemental carbon and particulate matter in eight Southern Californian communities. Atmospheric Environment 2014;86:84-92. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Urman R, McConnell R, Islam T, Avol EL, Lurmann FW, Vora H, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ. Associations of children's lung function with ambient air pollution: joint effects of regional and near-roadway pollutants. Thorax 2014;69(6):540-547. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Vos MB, Goran MI. Sugar, sugar ... not so sweet for the liver.Gastroenterology 2017;153(3):642-645. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Wang P, Tuvblad C, Younan D, Franklin M, Lurmann F, Wu J, Baker LA, Chen JC. Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: a longitudinal analysis. PLoS One 2017;12(12):e0188731 (15 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Wheelock K, Zhang JJ, McConnell R, Tang D, Volk HE, Wang Y, Herbstman JB, Wang S, Phillips DH, Camann D, Gong J, Perera F. A novel method for source-specific hemoglobin adducts of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 2018;20(5):780-789. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Wu W, Muller R, Berhane K, Fruin S, Liu F, Jaspers I, Diaz-Sanchez D, Peden DB, McConnell R. Inflammatory response of monocytes to ambient particles varies by highway proximity. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2014;51(6):802-809. R835441 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Younan D, Tuvblad C, Li L, Wu J, Lurmann F, Franklin M, Berhane K, McConnell R, Wu AH, Baker LA, Chen JC. Environmental determinants of aggression in adolescents: role of urban neighborhood greenspace. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2016;55(7):591-601. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Younan D, Tuvblad C, Franklin M, Lurmann F, Li L, Wu J, Berhane K, Baker LA, Chen JC. Longitudinal analysis of particulate air pollutants and adolescent delinquent behavior in Southern California. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2018;46(6):1283-1293. R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Zigman JM, Bouret SG, Andrews ZB. Obesity impairs the action of the neuroendocrine ghrelin system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 2016;27(1):54-63. R835441 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Zink J, Belcher BR, Dzubur E, Ke W, O'Connor S, Huh J, Lopez N, Maher JP, Dunton GF. Association between self-reported and objective activity levels by demographic factors: ecological momentary assessment study in children. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2018;6(6):e150 (12 pp.). R835441 (2018)
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  • Journal Article Volk HE, Lurmann F, Penfold B, Hertz-Picciotto I, McConnell R. Traffic related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(1):71-77. R835441 (2017)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Chen Z, Toledo-Corral CM, Contreras ZA, Kim JS, Habre R, Chatzi L, Bastain T, Breton CV, Gilliland FD. Ambient and traffic-related air pollution exposures as novel risk factors for metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Current Epidemiology Reports 2018;5(2):79-91. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liao Y, Schembre SM, O'Connor SG, Belcher BR, Maher JP, Dzubur E, Dunton GF. An electronic ecological momentary assessment study to examine the consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods, fruits/vegetables, and affective states among women. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2018;50(6):626-631. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Vafeiadi M, Myridakis A, Roumeliotaki T, Chalkiadaki G, Dermitzaki E, Venihaki M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Leventakou V, Stephanou EG, Kogevinas M. Association of early life exposure to phthalates with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in childhood:sex specific associations. Frontiers in Public Health 2018;6:327. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Broadney MM, Belcher BR, Berrigan DA, Brychta RJ, Tigner IL, Shareef F, Papachristopoulou A, Hattenbach JD, Davis EK, Brady SM, Bernstein SB. Effects of interrupting sedentary behavior with short bouts of moderate physical activity on glucose tolerance in children with overweight and obesity:A randomized crossover trial. Diabetes care 2018;41(10):2220-2228. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Croteau‐Chonka DC, Chen Z, Barnes KC, Barraza‐Villarreal A, Celedón JC, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD, Krishnan JA, Liu AH, London SJ, Martinez FD. Gene coexpression networks in whole blood implicate multiple interrelated molecular pathways in obesity in people with asthma. Obesity 2018;26(12): 1938-1948. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wen CK, Liao Y, Maher JP, Huh J, Belcher BR, Dzubur E, Dunton GF. Relationships among affective states, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in children:Moderation by perceived stress. Health Psychology 2018;37(10):904. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Casas M, Basagana X, Sakhi AK, Haug LS, Philippat C, Granum B, Manzano-Salgado CB, Brochot C, Zeman F, de Bont J, Andrusaityte S. Variability of urinary concentrations of non-persistent chemicals in pregnant women and school-aged children. Environment International 2018;121:561-573. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Voerman E, Santos S, Inskip H, Amiano P, Barros H, Charles MA, Chatzi L, Chrousos GP, Corpeleijn E, Crozier S, Doyon M. Association of gestational weight gain with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Jama 2019;321(17):1702-1715. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Galle-Treger L, Sankaranarayanan I, Hurrell BP, Howard E, Lo R, Maazi H, Lewis G, Banie H, Epstein AL, Hu P, Rehan VK. Costimulation of type-2 innate lymphoid cells by GITR promotes effector function and ameliorates type 2 diabetes. Nature Communications 2019;10(1):713. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Belcher BR, Maher JP, Lopez NV, Margolin G, Leventhal AM, Ra CK, O’Connor S, Gruenewald TL, Huh J, Dunton GF. Dual versus single parental households and differences in maternal mental health and child’s overweight/obesity. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2019;23(4):547-556. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Woodward NC, Crow AL, Zhang Y, Epstein S, Hartiala J, Johnson R, Kocalis H, Saffari A, Sankaranarayanan I, Akbari O, Ramanathan G. Exposure to nanoscale particulate matter from gestation to adulthood impairs metabolic homeostasis in mice. Scientific Reports 2019;9(1):1816. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Agier L, Basagaña X, Urquiza J, Tamayo-Uria I, Giorgis-Allemand L, Robinson O, Siroux V, Maitre L, de Castro M, Valentin A. Influence of the urban exposome on birth weight. Environmental Health Perspectives 2019;127(4):047007. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Warrington NM, Beaumont RN, Horikoshi M, Day FR, Helgeland O, Laurin C, Bacelis J, Peng S, Hao K, Feenstra B, Wood AR. Maternal and fetal genetic effects on birth weight and their relevance to cardio-metabolic risk factors. Nature Genetics 2019;51(5):804-814. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Voerman E, Santos S, Golab BP, Amiano P, Ballester F, Barros H, Bergstrom A, Charles MA, Chatzi L, Chevrier C, Chrousos GP. Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood:an individual participant data meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 2019;16(2):e1002744. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Alderete TL, Jin R, Walker DI, Valvi D, Chen Z, Jones DP, Peng C, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Conti DV, Goran MI. Perfluoroalkyl substances, metabolomic profiling, and alterations in glucose homeostasis among overweight and obese Hispanic children:a proof-of-concept analysis. Environment International 2019;126:445-453. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lopez NV, Yang CH, Belcher BR, Margolin G, Dunton GF. Within-subject associations of maternal physical activity parenting practices on children’s objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2019;44(3):300-310. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article O’Connor SG, Habre R, Bastain TM, Toledo-Corral CM, Gilliland FD, Eckel SP, Cabison J, Naya CH, Farzan SF, Chu D, Chavez TA. Within-subject effects of environmental and social stressors on pre-and post-partum obesity-related biobehavioral responses in low-income Hispanic women:protocol of an intensive longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 2019;19(1):253. R835441 (Final)
    R836158 (2019)
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  • Journal Article Jones RB, Alderete TL, Kim JS, Millstein J, Gilliland FD, Goran MI. High intake of dietary fructose in overweight/obese teenagers associated with depletion of Eubacterium and Streptococcus in gut microbiome. Gut Microbes 2019:1-8. R835441 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chen Z, Herting MM, Chatzi L, Belcher BR, Alderete TL, McConnell R, Gilliland FD. Regional and traffic-related air pollutants are associated with higher consumption of fast food and trans fat among adolescents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018;109(1):99-108. R835441 (Final)
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