Evaluation of Dioxin in U.S. Cow's Milk

Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk supply (Schaum, et al. 2003. Exp. Anal Env. Epidem 00:1-10). In that study, nationwide samples were collected from dairy plants in 45 different locations, estimated to represent 20% of the U.S. milk supply, in July of 2000 and again in January 2001. The levels of all chemicals in the chlorobenzene, pesticide and other halogenated organic groups were determined to be below their detection limits in all samples. National averages were computed for 11 chemicals or chemical groups found above detection limits, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (CDD/CDFs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cadmium and lead.

This study is a follow-up to the earlier study. Its purpose is twofold: to refine some of the measurements reported earlier by recalculating them on a lipid basis, and to report on limited follow-up analyses conducted after the first study aimed at better understanding the source of a high measurement from the first study.

Schuda,L; Schaum,J; Lorber, M; Ferrario, J; Sears, R. 2004. Evaluation of Dioxin in U.S. Cow's Milk. Organohalogen Compounds 66:1952-1957.


U.S. EPA. Evaluation of Dioxin in U.S. Cow's Milk.

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