Guide to Current Literature on Exposure Factors

In an effort to keep the Exposure Factors Handbook up-to-date, the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) conducted a literature search and summarized recent data on exposure factors. The purpose of this site is to provide the summaries of latest information and data on exposure factors. EPA is not ready at this point to change the recommendations issued in the 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. However, as enough data become available, these recommendations will be revised.

Exposure Factors

Recent Tap Water Intake Studies
Burmaster, DE. (1998) Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water Intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States. Risk Anal 18(2):215-219.

Recent Breast Milk Intake Studies
Ryan, AS. (1997) The resurgence of breastfeeding in the United States. (1997) Pediatrics 99(4):E12.

Recent Fish Intake Studies
Burger, J; Stephens, WL, Jr.; Boring, CS; et al. (1999) Factors in exposure assessment: ethnic and socioeconomic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River. Risk Anal 19(3):427-438.

May, H; Burger, J. (1996) Fishing in a polluted estuary: fishing behavior, fish consumption, and potential risk. Risk Anal 16(4):459-471.

Jacobs, HL; Kahn, HD; Stralka, KA; et al. (1998) Estimates of per capita fish consumption in the U.S. based on the continuing survey of food intake by individuals (CSFII). Risk Anal 18(3):283-291.

U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (1999) Asian & Pacific Islander seafood consumption study in King County, WA. Region 10; Seattle, Washington; EPA 910/R-99-003. Available from:

Toy, KA; Polissar, NL; Liao, S; et al. (1996) A fish consumption survey of the Tulalip and Squaxin Island tribes of the Puget Sound region. Tulalip Tribes, Department of Environment, 7615 Totem Road, Margsville, WA 98271.

Wilson, ND; Shear, NM; Paustenbach, DJ; et al. (1998) The effect of cooking practices on the concentration of DDT and PCB compounds in the edible tissue of fish. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 8(3):423-440.

Recent Soil Intake Studies
Garlock, TJ; Shirai, JH; Kissel, JC. (1999) Adult responses to a survey of soil contact-related behaviors. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 1(2):134-142.

Wong, EY; Shirai, JH; Garlock, TJ; et al. (2000) Survey of selected activities relevant to exposures to soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 65(4):443-50.

Wong, EY; Shirai, JH; Garlock, TJ; et al. (2000) Adult proxy responses to a survey of children's dermal soil contact activities. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10 (6 Pt 1):509-517.

Recent Inhalation Rates Studies
Funk, LM; Sedman, R; Beals, JAJ; et al. (1998) Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: 2. distributions of time spent by adults, adolescents, and children at home, at work, and at school. Risk Anal 18(1):47-56.

Recent Surface Area Studies
Burmaster, DE. (1998) Lognormal distributions for skin area as a function of body weight. Risk Anal 18(1):27-32.

Recent Body Weight Studies
Burmaster, DE; Murray, DM. (1998) A trivariate distribution for the height, weight, and fat of adult men. Risk Anal 18(4):385-389.

Recent Activity Patterns Studies
Burmaster, DE. (1998) A lognormal distribution for time spent showering. Risk Anal 18(1):33-35.

Sedman, R; Funk, LM; Fountain, R. (1998) Distribution of residence duration in owner occupied housing. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 8(1):51-58.

Field, RW; Smith, BJ; Brus, CP; et al. (1998) Retrospective temporal and spatial mobility of adult Iowa women. Risk Anal 18(5):575-584.

Recent Reference Residence Studies
Wilson, AL; Colome, S; Tian, Y; et al. (1996) California residential air exchange rates and residence volumes. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 6(3):311-326.