Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook (Final, 1993)

The Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook provides data, references, and guidance for conducting exposure assessments for wildlife species exposed to toxic chemicals in their environment. It is the product of a joint effort by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), and Office of Water (OW).

The goals of this Handbook are (1) to promote the application of risk assessment methods to wildlife species, (2) to foster a consistent approach to wildlife exposure and risk assessments, and (3) to increase the accessibility of the literature applicable to these assessments.


U.S. EPA. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook (Final, 1993). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-93/187, 1993.

This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.