ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)
Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the US EPA’s Risk Assessment Forum, are narrow for younger ages when development is rapid and wider for older ages when the rate of development decreases. Estimates are based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). Water ingestion estimates include water ingested directly as a beverage and water added to foods and beverages during preparation at home or in local establishments. Water occurring naturally in foods or added by manufacturers to commercial products (beverage or food) is not included. Estimates are reported in milliliters (ml/person/day) and milliliters per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/day). As a by-product of constructing estimates in terms of body weight of respondents, distributions of body weights based on the CSFII were estimated and are also reported here. Infants younger than one month who ingested water at least once during the survey period (as reported by their caregivers), ingested an average of approximately one half liter of water per day. When the daily average per capita ingestion of water is normalized by body weight, infants younger than one month of age ingest, on average, the highest amount of water per day of any of the other age groups. Mean daily average ingestion is less than one half liter of community water for children less than six years of age. The mean daily average ingestion of water from all sources excluding water naturally occurring in foods and commercial water is approximately one half liter per day for children in the age group of 3 to <6 years. The estimated 90th percentile of the distribution of average daily per capita water ingestion is approximately one liter for children in the age categories 3 to <6 months and 6 to <12 months when water from all sources is considered. The estimated 90th percentile of total water ingestion does not reach one liter again until children reach the age category 6 to <11 years of age. When only water ingestion from community sources is considered, the estimated 90th percentile reaches one liter again for children aged 11 to <16 years. Mean ingestion of water, over all ages, is approximately 1.2 liters per person per day. Key words: water ingestion, risk assessment, infants and children, body weight distributions
KAHN, H. AND K. STRALKA. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE). Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, UK, 19:396-404, (2008).