Comparative Risk Framework Methodology and Case Study

The U.S. EPA traditionally uses a four step approach, known as the risk assessment paradigm, to assess risks posed by pollutants, whose presence is generally considered not to be beneficial to human health (NAS, 1983). This document's primary goal is to advance a methodology capable of evaluating the interdependent and disparate health outcomes and financial costs of alternative treatment systems. The secondary goal is to highlight the usefulness of the methodology through a case study presented within. For more information, contact National Center for Environmental Assessment; e-mail:; facsimile: 202-565-0078.


Boutin, B., M. B. Brown, R. Clark, J. C. Lipscomb, R. Miltner, P. Murphy, L. R. Papa, D. Reasoner, AND R. Rheingans. Comparative Risk Framework Methodology and Case Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

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