IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR CHLOROETHANE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)
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Many females showed metastasis at a number of organ sites and died early due to tumor load. Uterine carcinogenesis is uncommon in rodents, but is more common in humans. The mode of action is suggested by positive genotoxicity and structural similarity to bromoethane which also causes uterine cancers in the B6C3F1 mouse. Metabolic studies show that either chloromethane (CM) or CE can deplete cellular GSH pools by excessive reductive conjugation. CM and CE, when in excess, can be oxidized to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively, and both intermediates are regarded as posing a hazard to humans. For hazard identification purposes CE is judged to be a likely human carcinogen. An estimate of cancer potency was also derived using a linearized multistage model, though uncertainty exists because of bioassay limitations.
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