Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these are typicaly measured with time-integrated samples on filters that are later submitted to laboratory analyses. This requires substantial sample handling, quality assurance, and data reduction. Newer technologies are being developed that allow in-situ, time-resolved measurements for mass, carbon, sulfate, nitrate, particle size, and other variables. These are large measurement systems that are more suitable for fixed monitoring sites than for personal applications. Human exposure studies need to be designed to accomplish specific objectives rather than to serve too many pruposes. Resources need to be divided among study design, field sampling, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, data management, and data analysis phases. Many exposure projects allocated too little to the non-measurement activities.


Chow, J. C., J. Engelbrecht, N. G. Freeman, AND H. Hashima. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS. CHEMOSPHERE 49(9):873-901, (2002).