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IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Acetone (External Review Draft)
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Acetone is produced endogenously in the human body, although usually under conditions of stress such as starvation or high levels of exertion. Acetone is also produced synthetically for a range of commercial processes, mostly as a solvent and intermediate in the synthesis of high- value chemicals. Among the most common chemicals that use acetone in the synthetic process are methyl methacrylate, cellulose acetate, methacrylatic acid and higher methacrylates, bisphenol A, methyl isobutyl ketone, and a number of pharmaceutical applications. Acetone is used as a solvent for high-production-volume coatings
and adhesives, and is the primary ingredient in most commercial nail polish removers. It is also listed as a contaminant on more than 560 National Priority List Superfund sites.
Acetone's levels of production and variety of uses, coupled with it's volatility and water solubility, result in a high potential for exposure to acetone.
The draft Toxicological Review for Acetone (ToxR) identifies blood and kidney effects as critical effects, with a reference dose (RfD) of 0.3 mg/kg/d. The draft ToxR provides a new RfD based on a drinking water study to replace
a lower RfD derived from a gavage study. The draft ToxR does not propose a reference concentration (RfC) and proposes a cancer weight-of-evidence determination of class Dnot
classifiable as to human carcinogenicity under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (1986). Both determinations are consistent with the existing IRIS assessment. The cancer weight of evidence under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (1996) is "cannot be determined."
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