Thallium (I), soluble salts
IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft)
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U.S. EPA. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/635/R-08/001, 2008.
Susan H. Rieth, Ph: 202-564-8334, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Thallium exists in monovalent (Tl+1) and trivalent (Tl+3) states. Thallium is released to the environment through the combustion of fossil fuels, refinement of oil fractions, the smelting of ferrous and non-ferrous ores, and by some other industrial processes such as cement production and brick works. In the past, thallium was used as a depilatory agent and as a treatment for ringworm, venereal diseases, TB, and malaria. It was banned for use as a pesticide in the United States in 1972. Currently, thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation gems, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors.
|1987||IRIS assessments of thallium acetate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, selenite, and sulfate, and thallic oxide posted on the IRIS database (RfD only).|
|1988||RfDs for thallium compounds revised.|
|1989||RfD for thallic oxide withdrawn from the IRIS database.|
|1990||Carcinogenicity assessments for thallium compounds added to the IRIS database.|
|1993||RfD for thallium selenite withdrawn from the IRIS database.|
|Feb 2008||EPA releases the draft document, IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium, for public review and comment in a February 15, 2008 Federal Register notice.|
|Apr 2008||EPA announces the external peer review panel workshop in an April 8, 2008 Federal Register notice.|
|Sep 2009||EPA released the Final Toxicological Review (PDF) (136 pp, 964K) and accompanying Summary for Thallium and Compounds to the IRIS Web site.|
Following the External Peer Review, the final assessment will be published on the IRIS database.
Comments on the assessment may be submitted and reviewed using the e-Government Regulations.gov Web site. From the site, select Environmental Protection Agency and the keyword EPA-HQ-ORD-2008-0057 (for the docket ID) to comment on this report.
Contact InformationOctavia Conerly
by phone at: 202-566-1094
by fax at: 202-566-1140
by email at: email@example.com
by phone at: 703-347-8582
by fax at: 703-347-8699
by email at: firstname.lastname@example.org
This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.
- (10 pp, 43 KB, about PDF)
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- (299 pp, 57 MB, about PDF)
- (255 pp, 150 MB, about PDF)
- IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (Final Report)