- IRIS Summary (PDF) (17 pp, 135 K)
Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (17 pp, 135 K)
last updated: 07/01/1992
|System||RfD (mg/kg-day)||Basis||PoD||Composite UF||Confidence|
|Developmental, Hepatic, Urinary, Musculoskeletal, Other||6 x 10-1||Changes in body weight and liver weight increased liver weight of male and female parents reduced ossification and slightly dilated ureters in fetuses reduced offspring weight gain, total litter weight, and litter size||
: 1.70 x 102
Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (17 pp, 135 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.
Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (17 pp, 135 K)
last updated: 08/01/1991
|WOE Characterization||Framework for WOE Characterization|
|C (Possible human carcinogen)||Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986)|
- Based on an absence of human data and increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice. Except for a positive dominant lethal assay, there was no evidence of genotoxicity; this compound does, however, exhibit structural relationships to other nongenotoxic compounds classified as probable and possible human carcinogens.
- This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.
Oral Slope Factor:
1.2 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
Drinking Water Unit Risk: 3.4 x 10 -8 per µg/L
Extrapolation Method: Linearized multistage procedure, extra risk
Tumor site(s): Hepatic
Tumor type(s): Combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (NTP, 1982)
Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s PDF page to learn more.