- IRIS Summary (PDF) (13 pp, 114 K)
Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (13 pp, 114 K)
last updated: 01/01/1989
|System||RfD (mg/kg-day)||Basis||PoD||Composite UF||Confidence|
|Hepatic||9 x 10-3||Increase in SAP and liver weights, liver histopathology||
: 9.0 x 10-1
Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (13 pp, 114 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.
Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (13 pp, 114 K)
last updated: 10/01/1989
|WOE Characterization||Framework for WOE Characterization|
|C (Possible human carcinogen)||Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986)|
- Statistically significantly increased incidence and dose-related trend in liver adenomas and carcinomas (combined) in both sexes of one strain of mouse.
- This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.
Oral Slope Factor:
1.5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
Drinking Water Unit Risk: 4.3 x 10 -6 per µg/L
Extrapolation Method: Male mice: time-to-tumor linearized multistage procedure in dose, Weibull in time. Female mice: linearized multistage procedure
Tumor site(s): Hepatic
Tumor type(s): Liver adenoma/ carcinoma combined (Nor-Am Chemical Co., 1983)
Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.
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