Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)
Last Updated: 09/01/1990
|System||RfD (mg/kg-day)||Basis||PoD||Composite UF||Confidence|
|Urinary, Gastrointestinal, Other||2 x 10-1||Reduced weight gain, histopathology in rats||
: 1.5 x 101
Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.
Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)
Last Updated: 10/01/1989
|WOE Characterization||Framework for WOE Characterization|
|B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans)||Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986)|
- Based on limited evidence in humans, and sufficient evidence in animals. Human data include nine studies that show statistically significant associations between site-specific respiratory neoplasms and exposure to formaldehyde or formaldehyde-containing products. An increased incidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas was observed in long-term inhalation studies in rats and in mice. The classification is supported by in vitro genotoxicity data and formaldehyde's structural relationships to other carcinogenic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde.
- This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.
Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.
Inhalation Unit Risk:
1.3 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
Extrapolation Method: Linearized multistage procedure, additional risk
Tumor site(s): Respiratory
Tumor type(s): Squamous cell carcinoma (Kerns et al., 1983)
Note: The formaldehyde (re)assessment was suspended in Dec 2018, but may be restarted as Agency priorities change.
Assessment Manager(s): James Avery (firstname.lastname@example.org)
|Step||Assessment Materials Released to the Public||Release Date||Public Meeting Date|
|4||Peer Review Draft||06/2010||05/2011|
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s PDF page to learn more.