- IRIS Summary (PDF) (18 pp, 135 K)
Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (18 pp, 135 K)
last updated: 09/30/1987
|System||RfD (mg/kg-day)||Basis||PoD||Composite UF||Confidence|
|Urinary||2 x 10-2||Renal cytomegaly||
: 1.79 x 101
Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (18 pp, 135 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.
Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (18 pp, 135 K)
last updated: 02/01/1993
|WOE Characterization||Framework for WOE Characterization|
|B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals)||Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1986)|
- Based on inadequate human data and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in two animal species (mice and rats) as shown by increased incidence of kidney tumors and tumors of the large intestine in male and female rats, kidney tumors in male mice, and liver tumors in female mice.
- This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.
Oral Slope Factor:
6.2 x10 -2 per mg/kg-day
Drinking Water Unit Risk: 1.8 x10 -6 per µg/L
Extrapolation Method: Linearized multistage procedure, extra risk
Tumor site(s): Urinary
Tumor type(s): Kidney (tubular cell adenoma and tubular cell adenocarcinoma) (NTP, 1987)
Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s PDF page to learn more.