Benchmark Dose Software

BMDS 2.0 Beta with New Quantal Model Development External Review Reports and Supporting Documents


EPA is announcing the release of three documents from the external review of BMDS 2.0 with New Quantal Models. The documents include the consolidated comments from the reviewers, the disposition of comments and the draft development and testing report.


With the availability of BMDS 2.0 on the BMDS web site, EPA is providing (a) results of the external review (charge to reviewers and reviewer comments), (b) EPA responses to the review comments, and (c) a report describing development and testing of the models in BMDS 2.0 with new background parameters.


John Fox

phone:  703-347-8598



U.S. EPA. BMDS 2.0 Beta with New Quantal Model Development External Review Reports and Supporting Documents.
The new quantal dose-response models having alternative background parameters were externally reviewed by experts in June, 2007. Reviews were generally positive and confimed that the functioning of the computer code has been rigorously tested.

The new models are modifications of the current quantal models in BMDS. They were developed by modifying existing source codes, changing the code only as necessary. Addition of these new models to the suite of models in BMDS expands the range of alternatives available for fitting dose-response curves using generally accepted types of models.

Five new models implement an alternative form of background term, one that is additive to the dose. These are the multistage, cancer, log-probit, gamma, and Weibull models. The current versions of these models have a background term that is directly additive to the response probability. Models with background terms additive to dose were proposed and analysed in peer-reviewed papers by leading experts over 20 years ago, so they are not new to risk analysis. One type of model, log-logistic, will not be provided in a version with background additive to dose, because of technical difficulties causing unreliable convergence on solutions. Two quantal models, probit and logistic, that currently have no explicit background response parameter will become available in that form.

Thus, with the exception of the log-logistic, all the BMDS quantal models will be available in BMDS 2 in two versions, differing in the background term. Current versions of quantal models keep the names used in BMDS 1.4.1b. New versions with an alternative background parameter are distinctively named to identify them clearly, e.g., Weibull-BgDose, or Probit-BgResp.


Dec - Jan 2006Internal review
Jun 2007External review
Sep 2007Beta test release

This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.

Related Link(s)


These documents are final.
Contact for BMDS 2.0 graphical user interface:
    Jeffrey S. Gift
    by phone at: 919-541-4828
    by fax at: 919-541-0245
    by email at:
Contact for quantal models with new background parameters:
    John Fox
    by phone at: 202-564-2074
    by fax at: 202-565-0079
    by email at: