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A Health Assessment of Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene -(former title: A Risk Assessment of Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene)
Zhao, J. A Health Assessment of Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene -(former title: A Risk Assessment of Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene). Presented at The Central and Eastern European Conference on Health and the Environment, Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA, May 25 - 30, 2014.
Technical grade dinitrotoluene (tgDNT) is a mixture of dinitrotoluene isomers. It is composed of 76% 2,4 DNT and 19% 2,6 DNT with the remaining 5% a combination of the other four dinitrotoluene isomers (2,3 , 2,5 , 3,4 , and 3,5 DNT). The toxicological effects of tgDNT were reviewed and the critical effects were identified by evaluating available human occupational and animal studies mainly via inhalation and oral exposure routes. In occupational studies of workers from DNT manufacturing plants, tgDNT exposure (predominately via the inhalation route) associates with clinical symptoms, adverse reproductive effects, and adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. However, these occupational studies are limited due to co-exposure to other known and/or unknown chemicals and lack of useful exposure information. Oral studies in F344 rats showed that tgDNT has a broad toxicity profile in both males and females including significantly increased reticulocytes and Heinz bodies, increased relative liver weight and kidney weight, spleen hemosiderin and extramedullary hematopoiesis, increased incidence of chronic interstitial nephritis, and hepatotoxicity characterized by increased incidences of hepatocyte necrosis, hyperbasophilic hepatocytes, and hepatocyte megalocytosis . The incidence of testicular degeneration in male rats is also significantly increased by tgDNT. In order to identify the most sensitive non-cancer effect(s), all toxicological endpoints from subchronic, chronic, and reproductive/developmental studies were evaluated and dose response data were modeled using EPA’s Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS, version 2.2.2). A comparison of the points of departure for all potential critical effects suggests increased hepatocyte necrosis is the most sensitive effect and is thus considered the critical effect following subchronic and chronic oral exposure. In summary, tgDNT elicits a broad spectrum of non-cancer effects, among which hepatocyte necrosis was identified as the most sensitive effect. The views expressed in this abstract are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. EPA.
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Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/SLIDE)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT