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"Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"
Isakov, V., M. Snyder, D. Heist, S. Perry, J. Burke, S. Bereznicki, S. Arunachalam, AND S. Batterman. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies". Presented at 33rd International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, Miami, Fl, August 26 - 30, 2013.
Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration with University of Michigan is developing and evaluating several types or tiers of exposure metrics for traffic-related and regional pollutants that differ in their modeling approaches for addressing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pollutant concentrations. We hypothesize that using more refined exposure estimates will provide greater power to detect associations with health outcomes, particularly for traffic-related pollutants that can vary considerably over short distances and time scales. The Near-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) design includes determining if children in Detroit, MI with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways have greater health impacts associated with air pollutants than those living farther away, particularly for children living near roadways with high diesel traffic. One tier for estimating exposures to traffic-generated pollutants uses local-scale dispersion modeling. Temporally and spatially-resolved pollutant concentrations, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of AERMOD and RLINE dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. Hourly pollutant concentrations for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (EC and OC) were predicted at each study participant location (n=160). The exposure metrics were evaluated in their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants across the study area. This research will be used for improving exposure assessments in future air pollution epidemiology studies, and for informing future multipollutant exposure analyses.
The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division (AMAD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. AMAD research program is engaged in developing and evaluating predictive atmospheric models on all spatial and temporal scales for forecasting the air quality and for assessing changes in air quality and air pollutant exposures, as affected by changes in ecosystem management and regulatory decisions. AMAD is responsible for providing a sound scientific and technical basis for regulatory policies based on air quality models to improve ambient air quality. The models developed by AMAD are being used by EPA, NOAA, and the air pollution community in understanding and forecasting not only the magnitude of the air pollution problem, but also in developing emission control policies and regulations for air quality improvements.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/SLIDE)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
ATMOSPHERIC MODELING DIVISION
AIR-SURFACE PROCESSES MODELING BRANCH