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'Greener' Biomimetic Synthesis of Nanomaterials using Anti-oxidants from Plants and Microwaves
Varma, R. 'Greener' Biomimetic Synthesis of Nanomaterials using Anti-oxidants from Plants and Microwaves. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, 13(2):190-228, (2014).
The generation of nanoparticles often requires aggressive reducing agents and the cost of production is relatively high both materially and environmentally. Greener synthetic strategies are advanced via several pathways using benign reagents in the matrix in which they are to be used, thus reducing the risk of exposure during handling. Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea and wine polyphenols which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanometals in water without the need for large amounts of insoluble templates. Noble nanostructures with various shapes are obtained via microwave (MW)-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using aqueous solution of -D-glucose, sucrose, and maltose. A general MW method has been developed for the cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with metallic systems and bimetallic systems, and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and C-60. The strategy is extended to the formation of biodegradable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) composite films with noble nanometals; such metal decoration and alignment of carbon nanotubes in CMC is possible using MW approach which also enables the shape-controlled bulk synthesis of Ag and Fe nanorods in poly (ethylene glycol). A newer form of carbon-doped porous titania that can be useful for visible-light induced photodegradation of pollutants has been prepared using a benign natural polymer, dextrose. MW hydrothermal process delivers magnetic nanoferrites and micro-pine structured catalysts are obtainable in water from readily available metal salts. Sustainable route to nanoparticles using polyphenols from winery waste (red grape pomace), their numerous eco-friendly applications in catalysis, toxicity and environmental remediation are highlighted.
Submitted for publication to the journal, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
CLEAN PROCESSES BRANCH