EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay-Directed Fractionation and Sub-fractionation for Mutagenicity and Chemical Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Particles

Citation:

Mutlu, E., S. Warren, P. Matthews, C. King, Bill Linak, I. Kooter, Judy Schmid, J. Ross, I. Gilmour, AND D. DeMarini. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation and Sub-fractionation for Mutagenicity and Chemical Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Particles. ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 54(9):719-36, (2013).

Description:

Several types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been used for toxicology studies, including a high-organic automobile DEP (A-DEP) from Japan, and a low-organic forklift DEP developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N-DEP). However, these DEPs were not characterized extensively for chemical composition or sub-fractionated and tested extensively for mutagenicity. We collected a compressor-generated DEP (C-DEP) and characterized it by conducting bioassay-directed fractionation of the extractable organics in Salmonella and correlating the results by hierarchical clustering with the concentrations of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Relative to A- and N-DEP, the mutagenic potency of C-DEP was intermediate in TA100 +S9 (PAH mutagenicity) but was lowest in TA98 –S9 (nitroarene mutagenicity). More than 50% of the mass of the extractable organics of C-DEP eluted in the non-polar Fraction 1, and only ~20% eluted in the moderately polar Fractions 2 and 3. However, most of the mutagenicity eluted in Fractions 2 and 3, similar to A-DEP but different from N-DEP. HPLC-derived mutagrams of 62 sub-fractions per fraction confirmed that most of the mutagenicity was due to moderately polar compounds. The diagnostic strains identified a strong role for PAHs, nitroarenes, aromatic amines, and oxy-PAHs in the mutagenicity of C-DEP. Hierarchical clustering confirmed the importance of oxy-PAHs but not that of nitroarenes. To our knowledge this is the first use of hierarchical clustering to correlate chemical composition with the mutagenicity of a complex mixture. The chemical analysis and mutagenicity of C-DEP described here makes C-DEP suitable for additional toxicological studies.

Purpose/Objective:

Hierarchical clustering confirmed the importance of oxy-PAHs but not that of nitroarenes. To our knowledge this is the first use of hierarchical clustering to correlate chemical composition with the mutagenicity of a complex mixture. The chemical analysis and mutagenicity of C-DEP described here makes C-DEP suitable for additional toxicological studies.

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Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Start Date: 12/19/2013
Completion Date: 12/19/2013
Record Last Revised: 07/28/2014
Record Created: 12/19/2013
Record Released: 12/19/2013
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 265055

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB

INTEGRATED SYSTEMS TOXICOLOGY DIVISION

GENETIC AND CELLULAR TOXICOLOGY BRANCH