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Statistical Evaluation of Potential Damage to the Al(OH)3 Layer on nTiO2 Particles in the Presence of Swimming Pool and Seawater
Virkutyte, J. AND S. Al-Abed. Statistical Evaluation of Potential Damage to the Al(OH)3 Layer on nTiO2 Particles in the Presence of Swimming Pool and Seawater. M.C. Roco (ed.), Submitted to: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. Springer SBM, New York, NY, 14(4):1-9, (2012).
Nanosized TiO2 particles (nTiO2) are usually coated with an Al(OH)3 layer when used in sunscreen to shield against the harmful effects of free radicals that are generated when these particles are exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, it is vital to insure the structural stability of these particles in the environment where the protective layer may be damaged and adverse health and environmental effects can occur. This study utilized X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS) to provide a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of Al(OH)3-coated original and damaged nTiO2 particles (used in sunscreen lotion formulations) in the presence of both swimming pool and seawater. Also, by utilizing statistical tools, a distribution of Al/Ti (%) on the particle surface was determined and evaluated. It was found that 45 min of treatment with swimming pool and seawater significantly induced the redistribution of Al/Ti (%), which changed the surface characteristics of particles and, therefore, may have induced undesired photo-activity and the consequent formation of free radicals.
The main goals of this communication were (1) to evaluate the benefits of using SEM-EDS to study the extent of damage on particles, and (2) to prove that treatment with swimming pool and seawater induces statistically significant changes on the surface of particles. It was also hypothesized that due to the damage of the protective Al(OH)3 layer, a change in particle behavior and characteristics would occur.
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Statistical Evaluation of Potential Damage to the Al(OH)3 Layer Exit
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION