You are here:
Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust
Ghio, A., J. Sobus, J. Pleil, AND M. Madden. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust. Swiss Medical Weekly 142:w13597, (2012).
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of healthy subjects to DE and DEP demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect in the lung and systemically but only at higher concentrations (with a threshold dose approximating 300 µg/m3). Unexpectedly, there appears to be a lack of an inflammatory response to DE and DEP in asthmatic individuals. Controlled human exposure studies of cardiovascular effects show that, comparable to other particle-associated exposures, DE has a capacity to precipitate coronary artery disease. In addition, there is a relationship between DE and DEP exposure and vascular endpoints; these effects in DE may be diminished with removal of DEP. Extra-pulmonary health effects of DE exposure, including inflammation, pro-thrombotic changes, and cardiovascular disease, are considered consequent to the primary lung inflammation. Future research will focus on the relative importance of DE components, potential interactions between components and other pollutants, and effects of longer exposures.
The effects of DE have been investigated for their impact on human health more than any other emission source pollutant. In the healthy subject, controlled human exposure to DE incites lung and systemic inflammation with a threshold concentration approximating 300 µg/m3. Systemic health consequences of DE exposure are considered consequent to the primary lung inflammation and include pro-thrombotic changes and cardiovascular disease. It appears that DEP is associated with some portion of the biological effect of DE. Future research can focus on potential effects of longer exposure, the relative importance of DE components, and potential interactions between components and other pollutants
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CLINICAL RESEARCH BRANCH