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Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils
ROGERS, S. W., M. Donnelly, L. Peed, C. A. KELTY, S. Mondal, Z. Zhong, AND O. C. SHANKS. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils. H. L. Drake (ed.), APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 77(14):4839-4848, (2011).
This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7/pZs and red fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs were added to laboratory-scale manure-amended soil microcosms with moisture contents of 60% or 80% field capacity and incubated at temperatures of -20oC, 100C, or 25oC for 120 days. A two-stage first-order decay model was used to determine stage 1 and stage 2 first-order decay rate coefficients and transition times for each organism and qPCR genetic marker in each treatment. Genetic markers for FIB (Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Bacteroidales) exhibited decay rate coefficients similar to that of E. coli O157:H7/pZs but not of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs and persisted at detectable levels longer than both pathogens. Concentrations of these two bacterial pathogens, their counterpart qPCR genetic markers (stx1 and ttrRSBCA, respectively), and FIB genetic markers were also correlated (r = 0.528 to 0.745). This suggests that these qPCR genetic markers may be reliable conservative surrogates for monitoring fecal pollution from manure-amended land. Host-associated qPCR genetic markers for microbial source tracking decayed rapidly to nondetectable concentrations, long before FIB, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs, and E. coli O157:H7/pZs. Although good indicators of point source or recent nonpoint source fecal contamination events, these host-associated qPCR genetic markers may not be reliable indicators of nonpoint source fecal contamination events that occur weeks following manure application on land.
To investigate the utility of qPCR genetic markers as surrogates for cultivation-based measurements of viable bacterial pathogens and FIB in agricultural soils amended with manures at agronomic (nutrient-limited) rates.
URLs/Downloads:Decay of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, and Real-Time Exit
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS MANAGEMENT BRANCH