EPA Science Inventory

Immunotoxicant Screening and Prioritization in the 21st Century**

Citation:

LUEBKE, R. W. Immunotoxicant Screening and Prioritization in the 21st Century**. TOXICOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY. Society of Toxicology, 40(2):294-9, (2012).

Description:

Current immunotoxicity testing guidance for drugs, high production volume chemicals and pesticides specifies the use of animal models to assess potential biomarkers of immune system effects (e.g., lymphoid organ and bone marrow indices, histopathology) or actual measures of immune function (e.g., responses to challenge with antigens or pathogens). These assays are resource intensive and often require special training or experience to ensure reliable results. Alternative in vitro assays to detect immunosuppression and allergic hypersensitivity have the potential to reduce animal use and testing costs and increase immunotoxicity screening and prioritization efforts. Alternative models to detect immunosuppression tend to address broad modes of action because suppression may be caused by a wide variety of events; current in vitro models access the supply of innate and adaptive immune system cells as well as cellular markers associated with function including gene expression, protein synthesis and proliferation. Events leading to induction of allergic hypersensitivity, particularly contact hypersensitivity, are more restricted, and alternative methods currently exploit chemical properties and activation of defined cell populations to detect and estimate the potency of skin sensitizers. Disclaimer This paper has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the agency nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Purpose/Objective:

Current immunotoxicity testing guidance for drugs, high production volume chemicals and pesticides specifies the use of animal models to assess potential biomarkers of immune system effects (e.g., lymphoid organ and bone marrow indices, histopathology) or actual measures of immune function (e.g., responses to challenge with antigens or pathogens). Alternative in vitro assays to detect immunosuppression and allergic hypersensitivity have the potential to reduce animal use and testing costs and increase immunotoxicity screening and prioritization efforts. Alternative models to detect immunosuppression tend to address broad modes of action in whereas methods for allergic sensitizers exploit chemical properties and activation of defined cell populations

URLs/Downloads:

EPHD-11-092

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Start Date: 02/01/2012
Completion Date: 02/01/2012
Record Last Revised: 10/23/2012
Record Created: 08/09/2011
Record Released: 08/09/2011
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 237496

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB

ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION

CARDIOPULMONARY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY BRANCH