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Developmental Toxicity Evaluations of Whole Mixtures of Disinfection By-products using Concentrated Drinking Water in Rats: Gestational and Lactational Effects of Sulfate and Sodium*
NAROTSKY, M. G., J. G. Pressman, R. J. Miltner, T. F. Speth, L. K. Teuschler, S. D. RICHARDSON, D. S. BEST, T. A. MCDONALD, E. S. HUNTER, AND J. E. SIMMONS. Developmental Toxicity Evaluations of Whole Mixtures of Disinfection By-products using Concentrated Drinking Water in Rats: Gestational and Lactational Effects of Sulfate and Sodium*. BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH PART B: DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 95(3):202-12, (2012).
A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate drinking water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies. First, chlorinated water was concentrated 135 fold by reverse osmosis; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back. Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 1 to postnatal day 6. Pups were examined postnatally. Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains. Treated dams had increased incidences of polyuria, diarrhea, and (in Sprague-Dawley rats) red perinasal staining. Water consumption was increased and pup weights were reduced. Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium (6.6 g/L) and sulfate (10.4 g/L) levels. To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea, respectively, Na2S04 (5-20 g/L) or NaCI (16.5 g/L) was provided to rats in drinking water. Water consumption was increased at 5 and 10 g Na2S04/L and with NaCI. Pup weights were reduced at 20 g Na2S04/L. Dose related incidences and severity of polyuria and diarrhea occurred in Na2S04- treated rats; perinasal staining was seen at 20 g/L. NaCI caused polyuria and perinasal staining, but not diarrhea. In a subsequent concentrate, barium hydroxide was used to reduce sulfate levels prior to chlorinating; this yielded lower sodium (≤1.5 g/L) and sulfate (≤2.1 g/L) levels. Treated dams had increased water consumption, but pup weight and survival were unaffected. There were no treatment-related clinical findings, indicating that mixtures produced by the second method are suitable for multigenerational testing.
A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate drinking water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies.
URLs/Downloads:BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH B DEV REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY Exit
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
TOXICOLOGY ASSESSMENT DIVISION
ENDOCRINE TOXICOLOGY BRANCH